The most striking feature of Harappan civilization is its town-planning and sanitation. The basic layout of large Harappan cities and towns shows a regular orientation. One finds the streets" and lanes lay out according to a set plan: the main streets running from north to south and the cross-streets and lanes running at right angles to them.
The Harappan cities were the creation of careful forethought and planning, as is indicated by the striking regularity of the divisions, the successfully aligned streets, the orientation of all principal streets to the points of the compass, the correspondence of the houses and public buildings with the orientation of thoroughfares, etc.
Streets varied from 9 feet to 34 feet in width and ran straight sometimes as far as half a mile. They intersected at right angles dividing the city into square or rectangular blocks. Inside this square or oblong, the area is intersected by a number of narrow lanes crowded with houses. At Mohenjodaro each lane had a public well, and most of the houses had a private well and bath. Nowhere was a building allowed to encroach on a public highway as in Sumer.
Important Harappan cities, such as Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Kalibangan, Dholavira and Surkotada, were divided into two parts - a fortified settlement on the high mounds designated as 'citadels' and the main residential areas to the west of it called 'lower town'.
At Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan and Surkotada, there was a 'citadel', smaller in area than the 'lower town' and invariably located to the west of it. The citadel at Mohenjodaro contained many imposing buildings; all made of kiln-burnt-bricks, for example, the great bath, the college, the granary and the assembly hall.
Harappa was regarded as another capital of the Indus Empire. Here to the north of the citadel, lay the workmen's quarter, their working platform, and a granary; the entire complex suggesting a high degree of regimentation of their population.
Situated on the left bank of the desiccated river (Ghaggar) Saraswati in Rajasthan, Kalibangan reveals the same pattern of planning as do Mohenjodaro and Harappa, with a 'citadel' on the west side and a 'lower town' on the east. Thus the citadel complex consisted of two equal and well- defined parts, one to the south containing several large mud-brick platforms meant for specific purposes and the other to the north containing residential houses.
The platforms were separated one from the other, as also from the fortification wall: There was thus regular passages around them; the entire complex on this platform - the well, the bathing-pavements, and the clay-lined 'fire-altars' - had a ritualistic purpose. A similar indication is given by another platform, on the top of which were located a well, a 'fire-altar', and a rectangular pit lined with kiln-burnt bricks, containing antlers and bones of cattle, which seem to suggest a sacrifice.
The lower town at Kalibangan, while showing the usual grid pattern of main thoroughfares, subsidiary streets, cross streets and lanes, revealed that it too was fortified. Piercing the fortification wall, which was made of mud bricks, there were at least two gateways, one on the northern side leading to the river and another on the west providing access to the citadel. In width the Kalibangan lanes and streets followed a set ratio: thus, while the lanes were 1.8 m wide, the streets, in multiples of the former, were 3.6, 5.4, and 7.2 m wide.
At Surkotada, the settlement pattern of Harappa, Mohenjodaro, and Kalibangan is repeated, but with a difference. The citadel and the lower town were joined, although their relative directional position remained the same, the former to the west and the latter to the east.
As at Kalibangan, both the citadel and the lower town were fortified. Each had its independent entrance, located on the southern side; there was also an intercommunicating gate between the two. In addition to mud bricks, stone rubble, which is easily available in the neighbourhood, was liberally used for construction.
At the recently excavated Harappan city of Dholavira, there existed three principal divisions, instead of the usual two at other sites. The first two divisions-the 'citadel' and the 'middle town'- were fortified with stone masonry. The whole planning resembles the European castle having two well-fortified areas. The fortifications were provided with bastions at frequent intervals as well as gates, narrow or wide.
Banawali (Haryana) was one more fortified town of the Harappan civilization. Although the general principles of Harappan town-planning were followed here too, yet there were some significant departures from the established norms. The town lacked the general conception of a chess-board or gridiron pattern of planning.
Here the roads are neither always straight nor do they necessarily cut each other at right angles and systematic drainage is the exception than the rule. Lastly, the general subdivision of a metropolitan or urban township into two distinctly separate walled establishments does not hold good at Banawali.
Still, the available evidence proves that there is a basic uniformity in the planning of most Harappan townships, including Banawali, irrespective of their spatial dimensions. Another significant aspect of the Harappan town planning was the provision of segregated houses, a modern feature. The lower township was populated by the merchants, artisans and craftsmen, while the priestly and ruling class occupied the citadel.
Most of the large Harappan towns, described earlier, were encompassed by elaborately designed walls with gateways. The Indus towns possessed no general system of urban fortification, which was often massive, as at Kalibangan, but the gateways were simple entry-points to the towns. At Surkotada and Dholavira these gateways were quite elaborate, while at other towns they were very simple.
Some of the gateways had attached guard rooms, which were invariably very small. The Harappan fortifications were not meant to defend the townships from strong attacks by enemies but were safety measures from robbers and cattle raiders. The fortifications also provided protection against floods and served as the hallmark of social authority over the area they commanded.
The elaborate drainage system is a unique feature of the Indus Valley civilization, the like of which has not yet been found in any other city of the same antiquity. Below principal streets and many lanes ran a main drain, 1 to 2 ft deep, covered with bricks or stones, and provided with sumps and inspection traps at regular intervals.
Individual house drains, each one with its own sump pit, opened into the street drains, which in their turn opened into the great culverts emptying into the river. All soak pits and drains were occasionally cleared by workmen, and drains were provided with manholes at intervals for cleaning. This elaborate drainage system, like the town-planning, constitutes a notable point of difference with Sumer, where the inhabitants had, in most cases, vertical pottery drainage shafts beneath their courtyards, but these had no outlet.
Altogether, the extent of the drainage system and the quality of the domestic bathing structures and drains are remarkable, and together they give the city a character of its own, particularly indicating some sort of highly effective municipal authority. These features of urbanization and town planning are further reflected in the general layout and architecture of the Harappan cities and towns.
The Indus cities were built on prearranged plans as it is evident in the case of Mohenjodaro which is very well preserved. There was some kind of municipal or civic authority which controlled the development of the city. The streets ran in straight lines and crossed one another at right angles. The streets aligned from east to west or from north to south.
The most famous street called the 'First Street' of Mohenjodaro was 10.5 m wide and would have accommodated seven lanes of wheeled traffic simultaneously. The other roads were 3.6 to 4 m wide, while the lanes and alleys were 1.2 m (4 feet) upwards. The streets and lanes were not paved and must have been full of dirt and dust. The 'First Street' was, however, surfaced with broken bricks and potsherds.
Harappa, Mohenjodaro and other major towns were built entirely of bricks. All the bricks, burnt or unburnt, were well proportioned. The sun-dried bricks were used at Mohenjodaro mainly for fillings, but at Harappa it sometimes alternated with burnt-brick course by course and at Kalibangan it seems to have been, if anything, more common, burnt-brick being almost exclusively reserved for wells, drains and bathrooms.
The predominant brick size was 7x14 x 7 that is a ratio of 1: 2: 4. Very large bricks measuring 51 cm or more were used to cover drains. The bricks were made from alluvial soil (i.e., deposit of earth left by flood) and shaped in an open frame mould. Recessing and frogging were still unknown. Kilns of brick have been discovered at a number of places and some of them were probably associated with copper working.
Sometimes the bricks were stocked in large heaps with wood fire in between. The outside of the pile was covered with mud plaster to retain the heat. The bricks were well baked to a light red colour. Wedge-shaped bricks were used in the lining of wells, while for making the bathroom pavements watertight, small bricks (5 * 11 x 24 cm) were employed.
In some bathrooms a sort of plaster of bride dust and lime was reported. L-shaped bricks were preferred for corners. The later occupants sometimes removed the bricks of the old houses and reused them. This was possible owing to the non-sticking nature of the mud.
The buildings so far unearthed in the Harappan cities fall into three main classes: (i) dwelling houses, (ii) larger buildings, (iii) public baths, granaries, etc.
There is much variation in the size of dwelling houses. The smallest have no more than two rooms, while the largest are so vast as to rank almost as palaces. The buildings were mostly plain, without any recession or plasters. Only in the floor of one house at Kalibangan ornamental bricks were used. Probably the verandahs were decorated with wooden screws which have now perished. The ground floor of a small house measured 8 x 9 m and of the large one was double its size.
The houses were separated from one another by about a foot, probably to avoid dispute with the neighbour, and the space in between was bricked up at either end to prevent the thief from scaling the walls. The walls were very thick which suggests that some of the houses were double storeyed- Square holes on the walls remind that the upper floors and roof rested on wooden beams.
The roofs were made of reed matting-and then covered with thick coating mud. The matting was tied to the wooden beams with cords-some impressions of the cord are still noticeable. A few staircases of burnt bricks have, no doubt, been discovered but, as a rule, wooden staircases were used which have mostly perished.
The stairways had high narrow steps, sometimes 38 cm high and 13 cm wide to economize space. The roofs were flat and were enclosed by a parapet. To drain the rainwater, gutters of pottery were made; a number of them have been found at Chanhudaro. No roof tiles have so far been traced.
Ordinarily there was an entrance to the houses from the street side. The houses were quite commodious, divided into well-sized rooms, containing wells and bathrooms, and provided with covered drains, connected with street drains.
The open court was the basic feature of house planning in the Indus valley as in Babylon. The courtyard, which was usually paved with bricks laid flat, was surrounded by chambers, and doors and windows opened into it. The kitchen was placed in a sheltered corner of the courtyard, and the ground floor contained store rooms, well chambers, bath, etc.
Doors, Windows and Stairs: Doors were possibly made of wood and were placed at the ends of the walls, not in the middle. Ordinary houses very rarely had windows in their outer walls. Possibly, perforated lattices were used as windows or ventilators at the top of the wall.
Stairways, made of solid masonry, are found in nearly every house. They were built straight and steep, with treads unusually narrow and high. In some cases, the stairways led to the upper storey's which contained the bath and the living and sleeping apartments.
The kitchen was small. Fuel was placed on a raised platform. Cooking was mostly done in the courtyards in the open. A round bread oven has been unearthed in which 'tandoori roties' were made. Sometimes between the kitchen and the larger room a 'serving hatch' (an aperture in the wall) was made, pottery vessels with a hole in the bottom were sunk in the kitchen for waste water. The water gradually ran into the earth.
Bathroom and Toilet:
Every house had its bathroom which was on the side of the street. Latrines, though found rarely, lay between the bathroom and street for the convenient disposal of water. The bathrooms and latrines on the first floor had brick channels.
The walls of the bathroom (generally a square small room) were wainscoted with bricks laid on edges so as to stand three inches above the level of the floor. It had brick pavement sloping towards one corner. Pottery rasps were used to remove thickened cuticle. Pottery pipes, each provided with a spigot so that they fitted together, were used for drainage.
Several dwelling houses, large and small, have been unearthed at Mohenjodaro. There were large Khans (inns), store houses and watch towers. There is an extensive building, on the west of the stupa mound, which measures 69 x 23.5 m. It was a priestly corporation. It contains the Great Bath which was excavated by Sir John Marshall. The whole complex is a single architectural unit with walls sometimes 1.2 m thick. It might have been a college; hence it is named the 'Collegiate Building'.
On the south of the stupa at Mohenjodaro has been discovered a hall, 8 m sq, with a roof having 20 rectangular brick piers in four rows of five piers each. There are four well- paved aisles which are separated by rows of pillars. The hall was used for some religious assembly. Sir John Marshall compares it with a Buddhist rock- cut-temple of a later date, while Mackay calls it a large market hall with lines of permanent stalls along the aisles.
At Harappa a building has been discovered measuring 50 * 40 meters with a central passage 7 metres wide. It was a gigantic storehouse for grain, cotton and other merchandise. Some buildings were used as eating-houses; they have depressions in the floors which one held large pottery jars for liquids, grains and other foodstuffs.
A short distance from the 'First Street' at Mohenjodaro there was a palatial building of excellent masonry. It has two spacious courtyards, servant quarters and store rooms. It was either a temple or the residence of the Governor.
The population of the city gradually increased and the big houses were divided into smaller ones. In later stages, civic rules were not strictly followed. The entire city was protected by a 'city wall'. A small fort has been laid bare in most of the important cities.
Although it is difficult to estimate the population of the Harappan cities, Lambrick has made a case for a figure of 35, 000 at Mohenjodaro, based upon comparison with the population of a city of comparable area in Sind in 1841.
Another estimate by Fairservice suggests a slightly higher figure of 41, 000. He has also suggested a figure of 23,000 for the lower city at Harappa, excluding the citadel. According to Ailchins, Harappa's population may well have been more or less the same as of Mohenjodaro as both were of the equivalent size. S. R. Rao estimated the population of Lothal to have been around 15,000 whereas according to S. P. Gupta, Lothal may not have accommodated more than 2,000 to 3,000 people during its peak period.
It was usually believed that Harappans did not use foundation deposits, a system prevalent in Babylonia and Egypt. Such deposits help the excavator to fix the date or history of the building. However, at Kot Diji and Allahdino stone foundations have been unearthed. But nothing is known about the ceremonics associated with the laying of foundation.
Various household articles have been found at Harappan sites. These were made of pottery, stone, shell, faience, ivory, and metal. Copper and bronze appear to have replaced stone as the material for household implements. Pottery supplied numerous articles for the kitchen including flesh-rubbers, cake-moulds, dippers, beakers, bowls, goblets, dishes, basins, pans, saucers, ladles, heaters, jar stands, storage jars, etc.
Goblets with pointed bases were the customary drinking vessels, which were used only once. Querns, palettes, and jar stands figure among articles of stone. Jar covers and ladles were also made of shell. There were needles, awls, axes, saws, sickles, knives, fish hooks, chisels, etc. made of bronze or copper; the first two also in ivory. Blocks of lead were probably used as net-sinkers.
Technology, Arts and Crafts:
The Harappan craftsmen exhibit a degree of uniformity similar to that found in town-planning and structure plans. Indeed, it is so marked that it is possible to typify each craft with a single set of examples drawn from one site alone. It is not yet established whether this feature was achieved by the centralization of production, linked with efficiency of distribution, or whether by other factors, but in either case if calls for special attention.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Agecivilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early cradles of civilisations of the Old World, and of the three, the most widespread.[note 1]
Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward.[note 2]
At its peak, the Indus Civilisation may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus River valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings. Children's toys were found in the cities, with few weapons of war, suggesting peace and prosperity. Their trade seals, decorated with animals and mythical beings, indicate they conducted thriving trade with lands as far away as Sumer in southern Mesopotamia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards Mohenjo-daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. This Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from the cultures immediately preceding and following it. Of these, the earlier is often called the Early Harappan culture, while the later one may be referred to as the Late Harappan, both of which existed in the same area as the Mature Harappan Civilisation. The early Harappan cultures were preceded by local Neolithic agricultural villages, from which the river plains were populated. A total of 1,022 cities and settlements had been found by 2008, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers, and their tributaries; of which 406 sites are in Pakistan and 616 sites in India; of these 96 have been excavated. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala and Rakhigarhi.
The Harappan language is not directly attested, and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favoured by a section of scholars.
The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus Valley, where the first remains were found. The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
The Indus Valley Civilisation has also been called by some the "Sarasvati culture", the "Sarasvati Civilisation", the "Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation" or the "Sindhu-Saraswati Civilisation", as the Ghaggar-Hakra river is identified by some with the mythological Sarasvati river, suggesting that the Indus Valley Civilisation was the Vedic civilisation as perceived by traditional Hindu beliefs.[note 3]
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) encompassed much of Pakistan, western India, and northeastern Afghanistan; extending from Pakistani Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern Afghanistan in the north and Maharashtra in the south.Shortugai to the north is on the Oxus River, the Afghan border with Tajikistan, and in the west Sutkagan Dor is close to the Iranian border. The Kulli culture of Balochistan, of which more than 100 settlement sites are known, can be regarded as a local variant of the IVC, or a related culture.
The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilisations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. Recently, Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as well. Other IVC colonies can be found in Afghanistan while smaller isolated colonies can be found as far away as Turkmenistan and in Maharashtra. The largest number of colonies are in the Punjab, Sindh, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Gujarat belt Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda, Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi. Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for example, Dholavira.
It flourished along a system of monsoon-fed perennial rivers in the basins of the Ghaggar-Hakra River in northwest India, and the Indus River flowing through the length of Pakistan.[note 4] There is evidence of dry river beds overlapping with the Ghaggar River in India and Hakra channel in Pakistan.
616 sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries, while 406 sites have been found along the Indus and its tributaries. According to Shereen Ratnagar the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has more remaining sites than the alluvium of the Indus Valley, since the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus Valley Civilisation.[page needed]
Discovery and history of excavation
The ruins of Harappa were described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending "thirteen cosses" (about 25 miles or 41 km).[note 5]
In 1856, Alexander Cunningham, later director-general of the archaeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa where the British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. John wrote, "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway". They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Harappa. Visiting the city, he found it full of hard well-burnt bricks, and, "convinced that there was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted", the city of Harappa was reduced to ballast. A few months later, further north, John's brother William Brunton's "section of the line ran near another ruined city, bricks from which had already been used by villagers in the nearby village of Harappa at the same site. These bricks now provided ballast along 93 miles (150 km) of the railroad track running from Karachi to Lahore".
In 1872–75, Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). More Harappan seals were discovered in 1912 by John Faithfull Fleet, prompting an archaeological campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall. Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats began excavating Harappa in 1921, finding buildings and artefacts indicative of an ancient civilisation. These were soon complemented by discoveries at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, Ernest J. H. Mackay, and Marshall. By 1931, much of Mohenjo-daro had been excavated, but excavations continued, such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, director of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1944. Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the independence in 1947 were Ahmad Hasan Dani, Brij Basi Lal, Nani Gopal Majumdar, and Sir Marc Aurel Stein.
Following independence, the bulk of the archaeological finds were inherited by Pakistan where most of the IVC was based, with new discoveries India now has 50% more sites than Pakistan. Outposts of the Indus Valley civilisation were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani Balochistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, in modern-day Surat, Gujarat, India.
In 2010, heavy floods hit Haryana in India and damaged the archaeological site of Jognakhera, where ancient copper smelting furnaces were found dating back almost 5,000 years. The Indus Valley Civilisation site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed.
Main article: Periodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation
The cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation had "social hierarchies, their writing system, their large planned cities and their long-distance trade [which] mark them to archaeologists as a full-fledged 'civilisation.'" The mature phase of the Harappan civilisation lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures — Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively — the entire Indus Valley Civilisation may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. It is part of the Indus Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the Indus Valley.
Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the IVC. The most commonly used classifies the Indus Valley Civilisation into Early, Mature and Late Harappan Phase. An alternative approach by Shaffer divides the broader Indus Valley Tradition into four eras, the pre-Harappan "Early Food Producing Era," and the Regionalisation, Integration, and Localisation eras, which correspond roughly with the Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and Late Harappan phases.
According to Rao, Hakra Ware has been found at Bhirrana, and is pre-Harappan, dating to the 8th-7th millennium BCE. Hakra Ware culture is a material culture which is contemporaneous with the early Harappan Ravi phase culture (3300-2800 BCE) of the Indus Valley. According to Dikshit and Rami, the estimation for the antiquity of Bhirrana as pre-Harappan is based on two calculations of charcoal samples, giving two dates of respectively 7570-7180 BCE, and 6689-6201 BCE.
|Dates||Main Phase||Mehrgarh phases||Harappan phases||Other phases||Era|
|7000–5500 BCE||Pre-Harappan||Mehrgarh I|
|Early Food Producing Era|
|5500–3300 BCE||Pre-Harappan/Early Harappan||Mehrgarh II-VI|
c.4000-2500/2300 BCE (Shaffer)
c.5000-3200 BCE (Coningham & Young)
|3300–2800 BCE||Early Harappan|
c.3300-2800 BCE (Mughal)
c.5000-2800 BCE (Kenoyer)
(Ravi Phase; Hakra Ware)
|2800–2600 BCE||Mehrgarh VII||Harappan 2|
(Kot Diji Phase,
|2600–2450 BCE||Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Civilisation)||Harappan 3A (Nausharo II)||Integration Era|
|2450–2200 BCE||Harappan 3B|
|2200–1900 BCE||Harappan 3C|
|1900–1700 BCE||Late Harappan||Harappan 4||Cemetery H|
Ochre Coloured Pottery
|1700–1300 BCE||Harappan 5|
Iron Age India
|Painted Grey Ware (1200-600 BCE)|
Vedic period (c.1500-500 BCE)
c.1200-300 BCE (Kenoyer)
c.1500-600 BCE (Coningham & Young)
|600-300 BCE||Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age)(700-200 BCE)|
Second urbanisation (c.500-200 BCE)
Pre-Harappan - Mehrgarh
See also: Neolithic revolution, Fertile Crescent, and Demic diffusion
Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) site to the west of the Indus River valley, near the capital of the Kachi District in Pakistan, on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, near the Bolan Pass. According to Ahmad Hasan Dani, professor emeritus at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, the discovery of Mehrgarh "changed the entire concept of the Indus civilisation […] There we have the whole sequence, right from the beginning of settled village life." Mehrgarh is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.[note 7] According to Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation.
Mehrgarh was influenced by the Near Eastern Neolithic, with similarities between "domesticated wheat varieties, early phases of farming, pottery, other archaeological artefacts, some domesticated plants and herd animals." Gallego Romero et al. (2011) notice that "[t]he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP."[note 8]
Lukacs and Hemphill suggest an initial local development of Mehrgarh, with a continuity in cultural development but a change in population. According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the neolithic and chalcolithic (Copper Age) cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the chalcolithic population did not descend from the neolithic population of Mehrgarh, which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow."[note 9] Masacernhas et al. (2015) note that "new, possibly West Asian, body types are reported from the graves of Mehrgarh beginning in the Togau phase (3800 BCE)."
The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from c. 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. It is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800–2600 BCE, Harappan 2), named after a site in northern Sindh, Pakistan, near Mohenjo-daro. The earliest examples of the Indus script date to the 3rd millennium BCE.
The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman Dheri and Amri in Pakistan.Kot Diji represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan, with the citadel representing centralised authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River.
Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other materials for bead-making. By this time, villagers had domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates, and cotton, as well as animals, including the water buffalo. Early Harappan communities turned to large urban centres by 2600 BCE, from where the mature Harappan phase started. The latest research shows that Indus Valley people migrated from villages to cities.
The final stages of the Early Harappan period are characterised by the building of large walled settlements, the expansion of trade networks, and the increasing integration of regional communities into a "relatively uniform" material culture in terms of pottery styles, ornaments, and stamp seals with Indus script, leading into the transition to the Mature Harappan phase.