Palm civet. (Beth Clifton photo)
Not just a distilled load of crap
DENPASAR, HANOI––A vogue for pricy civet coffee has brought the civet farming industry back perhaps bigger than ever––and certainly in many more places, more than a decade after China tried to bring civet farming to an end.
Civet used in coffee production.
(One Green Planet photo)
“Liquid speed kills”
China banned civet farming in 2004 because of the association of civet consumption with more than 800 human deaths from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
But that was when civets were farmed almost exclusively for musk and meat, before civet coffee reached upscale coffee bistros catering to western tourists and spread from there to western venues.
Sold to coffee snobs as kopi luwak, the Indonesian word for it, or coffee alamid, as it is called in the Philippines, civet coffee is brewed from the beans that civets excrete after eating coffee berries, one of their favorite foods. Civet coffee is by reputation stronger and usually more aromatic than most coffees.
Examples of civet traps.
(YouTube and Flickr photos)
“Tainted by more than just anal glands”
But, as Patrick Winn of Global Post pointed out on March 21, 2016, “Kopi luwak is tainted by more than a furry animal’s anal glands. Just as off-putting is its cruelty. Kopi luwak is fueling a rush to capture more and more wild civets from their native Asian habitat, says Suwanna Gauntlett, founder of Wildlife Alliance, a conservation group working with forestry officials in Cambodia to reduce poaching.
Civet traps, Gauntlett told Winn, “amount to a bamboo stick with pineapple at the top — civets love pineapple — and when they climb the sticks, a snare catches them around the waist.”
Civets are also sometimes caught with steel-jawed leghold traps, which according to Gauntlett sometimes sever the civets’ paws.
“Similar to foie gras”
“The suffering doesn’t end there,” continued Winn. “Civets unlucky enough to fall into hunters’ hands are shoved into tiny cages where, ‘similar to foie gras geese,’ Gauntlett says, “they’re basically force-fed coffee berries.”
Assessed Winn, “The process amounts to torture by caffeine. Buzzed into delirium, as animal welfare campaigners have documented, the creatures pace in tight circles, gnawing at the bars of the cage and their own limbs. Their fur grows patchy. Some die. Any adult human munching through kilos of coffee beans would fly into a sickening frenzy; the effect on a seven-pound mammal is even more severe.”
Wildlife Alliance founder Suwanna Gauntlett, shown with elephant, campaigns against the civet coffee industry. (Wildlife Alliance photo.)
The rich & jaded
Collecting and salvaging the excreted beans from wild civets is so laborious that civet coffee, known for centuries, has historically been so costly to produce as to be consumed only in small amounts by the very rich and jaded. But civet farming in coffee-growing country has brought civet coffee within occasional reach of the merely affluent––at prices of from $50 to $100 a cup.
Summarized Winn, “The trade is dominated by operations that rely on force-fed civets in battery cages, not locals carefully combing the forest floor for wild civet droppings. That ugly reality led Tony Wild,” author of Coffee: A Dark History, “to start campaigning against it. He began publicly denouncing the ‘cruel, fraudulent’ trade in 2013,” founding an organization called Kopi Luwak: Cut the Crap.
Wrote Wild for The Guardian in September 2014, “The story of kopi luwak has a certain repulsive charm. A shy cat-like wild creature wanders out of the Sumatran jungle at night onto a coffee plantation and selects only the finest, ripest coffee cherries to eat. Only it can’t digest the stones (the coffee bean), and craps them out, its anal glands imparting an elusive musky smoothness to the resultant roasted coffee.
“And when, as coffee director of Taylors of Harrogate,” Wild admitted, “I first brought a small amount of kopi luwak to the west in 1991, that repulsive charm worked wonders with the press and public. My kilo of luwak beans caused a stir wherever I took it.
“But the charm has now evaporated, and the only thing left is the repulsive.”
But Wild does not oppose the civet coffee industry altogether. Instead, Wild explained in his Guardian essay, he favors “the creation of an independent certification scheme for genuine, wild kopi luwak.“
Unfortuately, the continued existence of a wild civet coffee industry and the existence of some free-range civet farms, selling civet coffee at up to $2,500 per kilo, allows consumers to believe that the civet coffee they drink is not factory farmed, that the civets who ingest and excrete the beans will not eventually be sold to slaughter at live markets, and that their pelts will not go into the fur trade.
Sometimes this may be true. As the civet coffee industry grows, however, and competition for the fast-expanding market increases, consumers have less and less way to be sure of knowing exactly where their beans have been.
Animals Asia Foundation logo.
Animals Asia Foundation
Recalled Animals Asia Foundation founder Jill Robinson, in a November 2010 posting to the Asia Animal Protection Network, “Someone sent me a packet of civet coffee beans last year. Our then-animal welfare director Mark Jones, now with Care For the Wild, kindly did some research.”
The company that sold the civet coffee beans “claimed to use only beans collected from wild civets, and that most of the profits go to a civet conservation project in Vietnam. Naturally this causes concern,” Robinson said, “that others less ethical might cash in on the established market and farm the civets.”
(Animals Asia Foundation photo.)
Which had already occurred.
The Animals Asia Foundation today advises would-be visitors to Vietnam, “So-called “weasel coffee” is advertised for sale in many cafes in city tourist areas. In reality the product is more likely produced from civet cats…Of course, much of the coffee being marketed as “weasel coffee” is in fact nothing more than ordinary coffee beans with a picture of a weasel or a civet on the front. Vietnam has great coffee. You’d be pretty dumb to drink civet poo.”
“Growing demand is fueling a gold rush in the Philippines and Indonesia,” reported New York Times correspondent Norimtsu Onishi in April 2010, and the rush appears to have accelerated since then, as wild civets become fewer.
“Harvesters are scouring forest floors in the Philippines,” Onishi wrote. “In Indonesia, where the coffee has a long history, enterprising individuals are capturing civets and setting up mini-farms.”
Civet dung collectors Alberto Patog, 60, and his son, Lambert, 20, of the Cordillera district in the Philippines, “wished they could expand their business but said there were not enough civets around,” Onishi recounted. “Local residents still prize civets less for coffee-picking ability than for meat.”
Civet farming boom
The Patogs were then among about 20 collectors who sold the defecated coffee beans they find to Vie Reyes of Manila, who founded her company, Bote Central, in 2002. Reyes told Onishi that she only buys coffee beans from wild civets, but that limits her ability to compete to fill the rising demand–and leaves more market share to the fast-expanding farmers.
Sumatran civet farmer Mega Kurniawan, then 28, in business just two years, already had 102 civets at three locations when Onishi visited. Each civet produces just over five pounds of “processed” coffee beans per month.
“During the day,” Onishi wrote, “Kurniawan’s civets sleep inside small wooden cages before growing active at dusk. At night, the animals eat from fresh plates of coffee cherries, replenished every two hours, or pace at a brisk caffeinated clip.”
Increasing the poop output
A neighbor, Ujang Suryana, 62, “has found a way to increase the civets’ output exponentially by mechanically stripping the coffee beans from the cherries and mixing them in a banana mash,” Onishi continued. “The civets gobble it up. This way, no beans are wasted. He has raised their dung production from 2.2 pounds a week to a whopping 6.6 pounds a day.”
The Association of Indonesian Coffee Luwak Farmers, formed in 2009, does not appear to work with any recognized humane organization to maintain high animal care standards, but does try to counter growing concern–including elsewhere in Southeast Asia–that civet coffee farms are operating like civet meat and fur farms.
“On our Sumatran civet farm, located in Lampung province, civets are kept in cages at night but allowed to roam protected courtyards during the day, where they can forage for coffee beans hidden for them to find by the farmers,” asserts the Vietnamese coffee company Trung Nguyen, describing the inverse of the normal activity cycle of civets, normally a nocturnal species.
“The farmer selects beans for the civet to eat,” Trung Nguyen continues. “The civets become quite tame and can be handled and accept treats from their caretaker’s hands. Their population is preserved by the farm’s breeding programs.”
Trung Nguyen also sells Bantai civet coffee.
“This environmentally and ethically sound coffee comes from the Julia Campbell Agro-Forest Memorial Park in the Philippines,” the Trung Nguyen web site says. “The park shelters the rare Philippines civet,” Paradoxorus Philippinensis, “and is also home to native people who live in communion with the civets and their forest…Coffee civets live in an organic preserve and no non-organic coffee grows within their range.”
That all sounds good to people who don’t ask more than the most trendy questions.
“Every street corner”
Though Trung Nguyen courts expanded sales abroad, the company primarily produces for domestic consumption–and Vietnamese consumers get a different brew.
In Hanoi, “Trung Nguyen Weasel Coffee sells on every street corner,” reports Kairos Coalition founder Robert Lucius, doing humane and environmental education in Vietnam since 2010.
“My sense is that it is more of a label than the actual product of civets,” Lucius added. “Friends told me civet coffee was available in Hanoi,” but Lucius himself had not actually seen any.
“The price for Trung Nguyen’s version certainly belies its rarity,” Lucius observed.
Synthetic civet coffee
According to the web site PoopCoffee.com, “The Trung Nguyen Coffee Company hired a German scientist to research the chemical processes that occur in the civet’s stomach. In 1996 scientists were able to isolate six specific digestive enzymes and then use these enzymes to create a synthetic soak known as Legendee, which they patented. Two varieties of Legendee coffee are offered. Legendee Gold simulates civet coffee from Arabica coffee beans. Legendee Classic simulates the civet coffee that comes from a mix of coffee bean varietals including Arabica, Robusta, Liberica, and Excelsa.
“Other companies market other products that are sold as simulated civet coffee,” PoopCoffee.com continues. “Some of these are created by adding flavorings to coffee beans. Several other animals besides civets have been used to produce this type of coffee. One animal used in Malaysia and Indonesia is the barking deer,” or muntjac. Coffee produced by gathering beans from muntjac droppings is known as kopi muntjak or kopi muncak. Virtually all kopi muntjak is gathered in the wild.”
(Beth Clifton photo)
Factory civet farms
Despite civet coffee industry efforts to promote the images of beans collected from the wild and tame civets who eat from farmers’ hands, contrary observations are frequent.
“The Bali Animal Welfare Association received two reports this week,” BAWA founder Janice Girardi e-mailed in November 2010, “from tourists who were taken on buses to coffee houses here in Bali that not only served kopi luwak but had cages where civets were kept just for viewing. The tourists were upset that the cages were too small and the animals obviously distressed.”
Photographer Kemal Jufri illustrated Onishi’s New York Times article with a close-up of a miserable-looking civet standing on a wire floored cage on the second floor of a grim structure resembling a prison.
“Civilized eating habits”
This was the reality of civet farming that the Chinese federal health ministry addressed on November 2, 2004, banning the slaughter and cooking of civets for human consumption to promote “civilized eating habits,” the state-run Beijing Daily reported.
About 10,000 captive civets were slaughtered, beginning 10 days after the health ministry received data showing that 70% of the captive civets in Guangdong province had tested positive for SARS. Wild civets appeared to be unaffected. Though horseshoe bats rather than civets are believed to be the host species for SARS, and the captive civets were apparently infected by human contact, civets are capable of transmitting SARS back to people.
(Earth Island Institute photo)
Civet farming continued
The Chinese prohibition of civet consumption was stringently enforced for several years in Guangdong. Seven thousand health inspectors in January 2007 visited 10,000 Guangdong restaurants, finding just one live civet and several frozen civet carcasses.
But Guangzhou Forestry Public Security Bureau commissar Chen Xibiao alleged to Ivan Zhai of the South China Morning Post that civet farming continued in Hubei and Shanxi provinces, to the north.
As the Chinese government has encouraged rapid expansion of the coffee industry in Yunnan, to the southwest, there is the possibility that civet coffee could eventually be produced in China as a lucrative export product––and a strong likelihood that if China entered the civet coffee industry, the Chinese product would soon be priced low enough to drive most of the competition out of the market.
Civet fur coat circa 1954.
Amid the SARS crisis, then-U.S. Health & Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson in mid-2004 halted imports of either live or dead civets, plus civet parts, such as civet pelts, but exempted products “processed to render them noninfectious.”
Though this exemption allowed the import of civet coffee, the purpose of it was apparently to allow continued imports of finished civet fur garments.
Civet fur hit the U.S. and European markets in abundance in fall 2003, coinciding with the Chinese civet ranching boom that preceded the SARS pandemic.
As the connection between SARS and civets emerged, the fur was said to be from “Lipi cats” and “genottes,” the French and Italian spelling of “genet.” Taxonomists recognize genets and civets as different branches of a closely related family.
Meat and fur sales are secondary revenue sources for civet coffee producers.
“Civets will be exploited”
“Because civet coffee pulls in money, I imagine civets will be exploited to get it,” opined Primates for Primates founder Lynette Shanley from Australia, where civet coffee has come into vogue among trendy thrill-seekers. “But realistically civet coffee is very expensive, so I think that will stop it from becoming an everyday luxury item. Civet coffee will only appeal to some, and then even among those who can afford it once in a while there will be people who find it revolting, as it has been through the civets’ digestive tracts. Hopefully,” Shanley said, “civet coffee will be a short-lived trend.”
But civet coffee has already been around for a while.
This petition, circulated in 1674, argued that drinking coffee turns men into eunuchs.
Willie & the Pope
“Give me an ounce of civet, good apothecary, to sweeten my imagination: there’s money for thee.” ––William Shakespeare, King Lear
History does not record precisely whether William Shakespeare was familiar with coffee, let alone civet coffee, but the passage appears to describe taking a substance to be ingested, unlike other common civet products and byproducts.
Shakespeare wrote King Lear between 1603 and 1606, soon after Pope Clement VIII in 1600 refused to condemn coffee as a “bitter invention of Satan,” and instead recommended that, “We should cheat the devil by baptizing it.”
David Liss’ 2003 historical novel The Coffee Trader centers on the introduction of coffee from Indonesia to The Netherlands.
Long known in Asia
Civet coffee had already long been known in Asia. The same traders who popularized civet musk perfumes in Shakespeare’s time were introducing coffee throughout Europe. The first British coffee house whose existence is recorded would not open for another 40 years, but Shakespeare moved among the intellectual avant garde who would become known as “coffee house society,” and paid rapt attention to whatever was said to be fashionable in Italy, the setting of many of his most famous plays.
Dutch traders had begun importing coffee from Java by 1603, when the first Dutch/Malay dictionary was printed in The Netherlands. The Dutch went on to rule most of Indonesia from circa 1650 to 1950.
Rudy Widjaja, 68, whose family has operated the Warung Tinggi coffee store in Jakarta since 1881, told Onishi of The New York Times that civet coffee was popular with the Dutch, and with the Japanese troops who occupied Indonesia during World War II.
After that, though, Warung Tinggi did not again sell civet coffee until 2007.
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Filed Under: Asia/Pacific, China, Feature Home Middle Right, Food & agriculture, Indonesia, Southeast AsiaTagged With: civets, coffee, kopi luwak, Merritt Clifton, Tony Wild
Not all of us are “right-brained” enough to have a powerful visual imagination. So, when the tutor handles the illustration essay task, hands could get a little shaky. But, no worries! This type of essay is not about artistic visualisation nor it requires any kind of drawing experience. It is much more about the “big picture” vision and the ability to formulate examples supporting your claims/arguments. So…
What is an Illustration Essay?
Illustration essay is here to prove a particular thing exists. This particular essay type relies much more on a research than analysis in order to prove a particular point. It contains a great deal of description and provides the reader with vocal examples. The thesis is formulated in the introduction; then it is developed with the help of illustrative examples within the body paragraphs – just to be perpetuated in the conclusion by the end of the essay.
Writing the Illustration Essay
An illustration essay is also commonly referred to as an Example essay. Of all the different kinds of essays students write, this exists as the most straightforward, easiest essay to write. While other essays require very specific aspects, such as the Cause and Effect essay, an illustration essay is exactly what it sounds like: an illustration of a particular subject. If you’re wondering if it requires drawing, have no fear! In an illustration essay, the writer illustrates his or her points with clear, authentic examples—not pictures. The body paragraphs should contain research illustrating the thesis, and likely the Works Cited and/or Bibliography pages.
Here is how to approach each of the sections of your illustration essay:
This paragraph opens the illustration essay. It typically contains anywhere from 5 to 15 sentences; a number of sentences depend upon the density of the topic being explained in the essay. It should begin with a hook – a sentence to gain and keep the reader’s attention. Hooks may also be referred to as “attention getters”. Examples of hooks include:
- Interesting facts
- Relevant statistics
- Rhetorical question
- Personal anecdote
Following the hook should be several background sentences. These sentences provide key information the audience may need to fully understand the concept being illustrated in the essay. Such information could include defining important vocabulary, providing historic or social context, or relevant personal background for individuals discussed in the paper. Information plays a fundamental role when it comes to putting up a piece of content, whether it ‘s an informative essay or not. Finally, the last sentence of the introduction paragraph should be the thesis statement. It’s a good idea to craft your thesis statement before you begin any research; a well-written thesis should be able to guide your research and make it more effective. What makes a good thesis? So glad you asked!
A thesis sentence should be both clear and argumentative. For an illustrative essay, a thesis statement should focus on identifying the subject to be illustrated and the way the writer plans to support the illustration.
A body paragraph’s purpose is to support the thesis. Each paragraph should contain a different piece of evidence that proves the writer’s thesis has merit. All body paragraphs follow a universal format involving five basic sentence types:
- Topic Sentence. This sentence identifies the topic of the paragraph and how it relates to the thesis statement.
- Background sentence(s). Depending upon the complexity of the subject identified in the topic sentence, the writer may need one to three or more background sentences.
- Research sentences. These sentences can be direct quotations or paraphrases of important ideas found during the research process. Any research sentences supporting the topic should be cited according to your teacher’s preference.
- Analysis. Analysis sentences explain how the research sentences are relevant to the topic sentence and thesis sentence. These sentences often use analysis words such as shows, portrays, illustrates, proves, and communicates.
- Conclusion/Transition. This sentence wraps up the paragraph and transitions the reader to the next idea in the following paragraph.
Now, here is where the “illustration” part comes in. You need to support each body paragraph statement with examples, proving or supporting your claim. Two examples covering each statement works the best. There is no need to dive too deep into examples – just lay them out as you outline your body paragraphs.
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Beginning the conclusion paragraph means that you’re almost done! Conclusion paragraphs are typically the shortest paragraphs in an illustration essay. Its purpose is to reiterate the main points within each body paragraph and prove to the reader that the writer proved his or her point within the essay. While these paragraphs are short, they are important; it is the last impression the reader has – so make it a good one!
Conclusion paragraphs should be strongly worded and confident. However, they should not introduce any new information; focus only one what’s already been presented as evidence in the essay.
Tips from our writers – free takeaways!
Transitions can really help move an argument along in an illustration essay. Transitions are words that act as connectors in a sentence; they connect one idea to another. They can show similarity, contrast, or illustration among other connections. Want your illustration essay to shine? Consider incorporating the following transitions to improve the flow of the essay:
- For example
- For instance
- As an illustration
- To illustrate
- In this case
- In contrast
Transitions can link similar ideas in the same body paragraph or link different examples between body paragraphs.
As with all essay writing assignments, it’s important to begin early and stay on-task. Keep to a writing schedule, beginning with an idea outline to organize your thoughts and help guide your research.
Check out this no-frills outline:
- Thesis: Cats make the best pets because they are loving, intelligent, and independent
- Body Paragraph 1: Prove cats are loving
- Example 1: they are loving to their owners (well, maybe not all of them)
- Example 2: they are loving to other animals (except dogs, of course)
- Body Paragraph 2: Prove cats are intelligent
- Example 1: capability to train cats
- Example 2: ability of cats to solve problems and play
- Body Paragraph 3: Prove cats are independent
- Example 1: cats can entertain themselves
- Example 2: they are born hunters
- Conclusion: Wrap it up with strong statements – prove your initial point
Illustration Essay Sample
Be sure to check the sample essay, completed by our writers. Use it as an example to write your own essay. Link: Illustration Essay on Social Statuses
Drawing the line (figuratively)
Taking the time to outline and narrow your research focus makes finding information much, much easier! But it is not always necessary to verse an outstanding illustrative essay. The best way to prove your point is to show a real-life example. Nothing really works better than cases and situations taken straight from your life experience (almost like the narrative essay, right?) People with colorful life experience tend to be the best in the illustrative essay “business”.
Remember: you have many resources available to you to help you earn the grade you want. Stick to a good writing schedule and take a rough draft to your professor for constructive criticism. Visit the campus writing center if you have one, or send your essay to our professional writers service for editing. Revisit and revise your draft at least once—perfection is a process!