Rivers In India Essay

The rivers of India may be classified into two categories; via: rivers of the north India and south India.

As the rivers of the north India have their sources in the Himalayas, they are perennial, being snow-fed in summer. The major rivers are the Ganga and its tributaries, the Brahmaputra and the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas - the main tributaries of the Indus. The major rivers of south India are the Narmada, the Tapti, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Cauvery etc. These rivers have their sources in different mountain ranges of the south India and hence they are not perennial - they dry up in summer.

The Ganga:

The Ganga is the most famous river of India. It is popularly called the Mother Ganga because of its usefulness. Its length is about 2,400 kms. It originates from the glacier called Gadgetry at Gomulka in the Himalayas. It flows in the mountainous bed about 320 kms. With the name "Bhagirathi" and then joins with the river Alakananda at Devaprayag. Thereafter, these two streams combine and bear the name "The Ganga". And flowing for a distance enters into the plains at Hardware.

In this plain stage the tributaries like the Rama Ganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gander and the Kisi drain into it from its left bank and from its right bank the Yamuna, the Chambal, the Beta and the Son join with U and it flows towards the east. In the lower reach it joins with the Brahmaputra at Goaled and with the name river Padma falls into the Bay of Bengal. Since the water of the Ganga has been very much polluted, efforts are now being made to clean and purify it.

The Yamuna:

It is the principal tributary of the Ganga. It originates from the glacier named Yamunotri and flows parallel with the Ganga for a long distance and joins with it at Allahabad. The confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna is known as "the Prayag". It is a famous place of pilgrimage. In ancient days the river Saraswati joined at this con­fluence and therefore, it has been named as "Traven", that is, confluence of three rivers.

The Brahmaputra:

It is another important river of India. Its length is about 2,880 kms. It originates from a glacier cuff Mount Kailas near the lake Manasarovar, and with the name Tango it flows through Tibet about 1100 kms from west to east. Thereafter, it cuts through the Himalayas at Niche Bara of Arunachal Pradesh and enters into India. Then it flows through Assam from east to west and after crossing the Meghalaya Plateau, flows' round Agro Hills and takes southward course. It joins with the Ganga at Goaled and falls into the Bay of Bengal at the Meghan mouth. After the confluence -of these two mighty rivers an extensive delta has been formed.

The Mahanadi:

It is the largest river of Orissa with a length of about 858 kms. It originates in the Amarkantak Plateau of Madhya Pradesh and enters into Orissa in the district of Jabalpur. It falls into the Bay of Bengal at False Point. Paradeep Port is situated on the mouth of this river.

The Godavari:

It is the' largest river of the south India with a length of about 1440 kms. It origi­nates from the region of Nasik of the Western Ghats. It takes an eastward course and drains into the Bay of Bengal. Its delta begins from Rajmahendri. The Indrāvati and Yen Ganga are its two major tributar­ies.

The Krishna:

It originates from the region of Mahabaleswar of the Western Ghats and after flowing about 1280 kms. Towards east, drains into the Bay of Bengal. The Tungabhadra and the Bhīma are its main tributaries. Its delta begins from the city of Vijayawada.

The Cauvery (Knavery):

It originates from the mountainous region of Coorg, flows about 280 kms and falls into the Bay of Bengal. There is a waterfall with a height of 98 meters in its course, near Sivasarnudram. This river is called "The Ganga of the south India."

The Narmada and Tapti are the principal west flowing rivers of India. The Narmada rises in the Amarkantak Plateau and flows westward through the rift valley between the Vindhya and the Sapura ranges, and then falls into the Bay of Cambay. The Dhuandhar Waterfalls are created while this river emirs into the plain stage from its mountain stage.

The river Tapti rises in the region near the Manado Hills, flows westward in the south of the Sapura range for about a distance of 720 kms and drains into the Bay of Cambay. It also flows through the rift valley of the Sapura range.

A number of small but torrential and water­fall-studded rivers rise from the western side of the Western Ghats and drain into the Arabian Sea. The Surakarta and Prewar are such important rivers. The Jog Waterfalls of the Pārbati River is the highest waterfall of India with a height of 243 meters.


Here in this article, we are discussing the ways to save rivers from pollution or drying up. Information given here is in essay format, but you can use it for speech too. As this is very frequently asked essay and paragraph topic you can expect for your exam too.

Essay on How to Save Rivers – Life Lines of India

India is a civilization which flourished on banks of great rivers like holy Ganga, Sindhu, Krishna, Kaveri. We worshiped these rivers for generations which are now on verge of depleting. All major rivers don’t run for all year round, they bring flood in monsoon and drought in summer. These perennial rivers which ran and helped the human, animals, and creatures around it for generations now hardly reach to the ocean in summer. These are not just the rivers these are lifelines of India. We destroyed the legacy of generations in few decades and if we don’t wake up now and save the rivers, the days will not far where people will kill each other for the water.

The whole planet has only 3% of drinkable water, out of which 2/3 is frozen on polar ice caps, that leaves only 1% of drinkable water for the whole world. In India, we already consume 75% less water and if we don’t do anything to save rivers then by 2030 it will reduce to 50%. We need to act now. These rivers give us life and in return, we killed them. Here are few ways we can save the rivers in India.

Stop Deforestation – Plant Trees

There is major deforestation going on in India, we fetch land form jungles and agriculture for residential buildings, industries and factories at an unprecedented level. We cut trees for paper production, for building material, road constructions and for fire wood. We need to bring down this unmanaged deforestation. The government needs to enforce the environmental policies. A lot of corruption happens in agriculture and forest land deals, the strong law needs to be applied for corrupts.

We need to plant more and more trees instead. Trees make land porous to absorb water in monsoon. Its roots, fallen leaves, organic matter around it reduce the speed of water and helps it to get absorbed in mother earth. Which increases the water table levels, and keep rivers running after monsoon too. If there are trees around the rivers then soil holds the moisture which helps rivers to flow all year around.

Sadguru Jaggi Maharaj launched a mega project called: Ralley for rivers. Which tells that we need to plant trees on both sides of rivers. This will help on both flood and droughts situations, it will reduce soil erosion and improve the water quality.

We need such people, politicians, celebrities to spread the awareness about river conservation. Rally for rivers also has art, essay, video competitions for school and colleges students. The aim of these contest and prizes is to make the youth think about rivers, learn the importance of rivers and come up with newer solutions to save rivers.

Rain Water Harvesting and Paan Lot System

We are fortunate that we get rain in monsoon season, but most of the water that mother earth bestows us goes waste. We need to save this water, with rain harvesting system. These systems are not new, these are there for a long time, the problem is that we don’t use it. State governments should make it compulsory to all households in the rural area and for all societies, colonies in urban areas. Rain water harvesting helps to absorb the rain water if it is implemented at big level can rejuvenate wells, rivers, and eco-system around it.

There is another method for rain water conservation called “Paan Lot”. With this technique we dont let the water run off from the surface in monsoon. Paan Lot reduces soil erosion, increases underwater table levels and can help us to save the rivers.

Paan Lot – Peoples movement

Mr. perfectionist Aamir Khan under Paani Foundation banner started this movement under the disguise of a competition called “Satyamev Jayate Water Cup” in Maharashtra state. Under this competition; more than 1000 villages from drought affected areas of Maharashtra participate, learned the paan lot methods and implemented it with help of villagers. No funds are given, no outside help, villages need to do it with “Shram Daan”. This is not a government project but a peoples movement.

Every living animal needs water, life can not sustain without water. We all consume water daily but when it comes to saving water or rivers; hardly few make any effort, we are all consumed in our rat race. Government policies, projects are important and those have to be planned and implemented but we need to make it a peoples movement. We have a living example in Maharastra, we need to extend it to the whole India. We need to do it voluntarily for our next generation. Do we want to see our children and grandchildren getting killed for a bottle of water?


Rivers in rural are drying up and urban rivers becoming the absolute dumping grounds. River pollution is a very big problem in cities and industrial areas. Industries dump toxic industrial waste into rivers, which kill aquatic ecosystem and affects people who are directly dependant on those rivers. In cities, all rivers turned into a sewage canal. In Mumbai’s there is a river called as “Mithee” means “Sweet” but there nothing sweet about it. It has become a big gutter, one cannot even bear the odor while crossing it from overbridge. Government policies are already there but the administration is failed to enforce them and that is the story of almost all cities and towns in India. We need to bring in better waste management policies mainly in urban areas. We need to come up with innovative ideas to save rivers from pollution.

River Front Beautification

We need to promote river beautification like Sabarmati river front. Western countries give immense importance to their rivers. They develop river fronts, parks, playing grounds around to make people feel the importance of rivers. In India also we need make people enjoy life near rivers so that they understand the value of rivers.


We abused rivers for a long time, it is no more a time to exploit water. We are in a dire need of solutions to save water and rivers or else water will be the single reason for the apocalyptic situation for our next generation. If we care for our children and grand children we need to act now. Save Water, Save Rivers, Save Planet….

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