Four Essays On Liberty Summary Of Oliver

A magnificent and indispensable volume: the best introduction to the most important and enduring of Berlin's ideas. - John Gray

For anyone wishing to have the essence of Berlin's thinking, Liberty is the volume to have. - John Banville, Irish Times

'Liberty not only offers a comprehensive overview of Isaiah Berlin's main topics and ideas, but also enables us to understand the development and relevance of those ideas in the context of his personality. - Steffen Gross, Dialektik

Practically every paragraph introduces us to half a dozen new ideas and as many thinkers - the landscape flashes past, peopled with familiar and unfamiliar people, all arguing incessantly. It is all a very long way from the austere eloquence of Mill's marvellous essay On Liberty, with which this collection's title seems to challenge comparison; but it is a measure of the stature of these essays that they stand such a comparison. - Alan Ryan, New Society

These famous essays ... are informed by that radical humanism, in the truest sense of that impoverished word, which has attached Sir Isaiah so closely to such nineteenth century figures as Herzen and Mill ... - Philip Toynbee, Observer

Skip introduction

Isaiah Berlin’s publications

Henry Hardy

Though like Our Lord and Socrates he does not publish much, he thinks and says a great deal and has had an enormous influence on our times.
Maurice Bowra

Mr Isaiah Berlin is diffuse and voluble.
Evelyn Waugh

Bowra’s belief that Isaiah Berlin rarely ventures into print was at one time widely held, but did not fit the facts. By 1971, when Bowra made his remark, Berlin had published a great deal on a wide variety of subjects, but, apart from his biography of Marx (item 24 below) and his anthology of eighteenth-century philosophical writings (62), his work had been of essay length, and had originally appeared in (sometimes obscure) periodicals and symposia, or as occasional pamphlets; most of it had been long out of print; and only one collection – Four Essays on Liberty (112) – had appeared in English. These considerations probably explain the once common under-estimate of the bulk of his writings. My belief is that this bibliography (first published in 1975), together with the nine additional volumes that have now appeared – including those that make available work that had not previously been published – has set the record definitively straight.

It is likely that the list is not quite complete: though I have conducted explorations on many fronts, my searches have not been exhaustively systematic. [3] I shall be grateful for notification of errors or omissions. But I do not think anything important is missing. I have excluded Berlin’s numerous unpublished broadcasts, his almost equally numerous interviews, [4] bibliographical details of translations into foreign languages, and a handful of minor items, mainly non-academic letters to the press.

It may be of some assistance to provide a rudimentary sketch-map for those who are not already familiar with Berlin’s work, and wish to sample it in a non-random fashion: it is not always easy to tell from a brief bibliographical entry whether an item is substantial or not, or what its subject-matter is. It is impossible to classify definitively writings which are so remarkably free of the restrictions of conventional subject boundaries, especially since the categories that suggest themselves – in particular philosophy, political theory, history of ideas – overlap so extensively on their own account. One needs a Venn diagram. But, failing that, I hope the following is a useful guide.

The contents of Berlin’s collections of essays, set out in the list at the end of this bibliography, provide the beginnings of a classification. But each volume lacks, for various reasons, certain items which belong in its category; and some categories are not represented as such, or at all, in the contents of any volume. So it is worth giving more complete lists here. (Titles of collections are given, both in this introduction and in the list that follows, in abbreviated form.)

The major essays on Russian thought, in addition to those included in RT (157) and POI (245) are 108, 169 and 228; the main essays on the Soviet Union are collected in SM (256).

Most of the principal philosophical papers are reprinted, together with 85 (a more popular article on the nature of the subject), in CC (158), but there are also 20, 54 (with the first part of the introduction to 253), 232 and 235. It is somewhat arbitrary to separate these items from those which fall most naturally under political theory, namely 64 and 81, both in CC, 71 (with the second part of the introduction to 253) and 233.

Many of the main essays in the history of ideas are included in AC (166), CTH (199), SR (227) and TCE (246). There are also 37, 38, the introduction to 62, and 74. There are several studies devoted to individual thinkers: AC includes pieces on Montesquieu (58), Moses Hess (75), Vico (114 and 152), Sore1 (121) and Machiavelli (122); in the same category belong essays on Marx (24 and 78), Herder (98), Maistre (200 and 218) and Hamann (212), and other essays on Vico (79, 99, the bulk of 139, 181 and the more popular 115 and 130). Items 79, 98 and 99 were superseded by VH (148), itself now incorporated into TCE (246). One might also include under history of ideas many of the Russian essays mentioned above.

There are numerous memoirs of and tributes to twentieth-century figures, mainly scholars, statesmen and writers. Most of the more substantial pieces in this category are reprinted in PI (167).

The principal Jewish studies, apart from 70, 75, 166a and 214, already assigned to other categories, are 43, 84, 118 and 126; there are also 52, 54a, 95, 119, 135 and 188a.

Finally there are the musicological items 89, 110, 124, 186 and 192b.

Much else, of course, is of interest. In particular, I have not included most books in this survey, some of which are effectively essays in their own right. There is no substitute for working right through the bibliography if nothing in a particular area is to be missed. But the selection I have listed comprises the main published oeuvre at the time of writing (December 2011). (There is also a great deal of still unpublished work, much of which will I hope one day see the light, either in print or on this website, where much unpublished material is already posted.)

Where an item has been reprinted in one of the volumes of collected essays, the title of the relevant volume is given in abbreviated form. Where it hasn’t (and isn’t under consideration for a future volume), an edited text will be posted as a PDF on this site, linked to from the relevant entry below: so far this process has reached 1933 (with some later instances). Improvements to the texts or notes will be gratefully received by Henry Hardy.

In updating the list I have not changed the numbering of items established in 1979 in the first edition of AC, lest this lead to confusion. Earlier items that have come to light since then are numbered ‘45a’, ‘166b’ etc.


1(unattributed) ‘The Collected Poems of G. K. Chesterton’, review of The Collected Poems of G. K. Chesterton, Pauline 46 no. 306 (February 1928), 13–15

1a‘Reflections on the Art of John Armstrong (O.P.)’, Debater (St Paul’s School) no. 9 (March 1928), 4

1bThe Truro Prize Essay (1928) (on freedom), Debater (St Paul’s School) no. 10 (November 1928), 3, and no. 11 (July 1929), 22; repr. as ‘Freedom’ in F

1c(ed. with others) The Radiator (St Paul’s School) vol. 1 no. 1 (Summer 1928); if (as seems likely) there are any contributions by IB, they are unsigned; one that is almost certainly his is ‘Our Interview with GKC’, 24–5 (repr. at F 7–8)


2‘Pelican s’en va-t-en guerre: a tale of war and peace’, Pelican Record 19 no. 2 (March 1929), 34–6: IB was one of the editors of this journal, the magazine of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, from vol. 19 no. 4 (December 1929) to vol. 20 no. 4 (June 1932); every issue contains unsigned items, some of which may be his

2a(unattributed) Review of Oliver Elton, C. E. Montague: A Memoir, Pelican Record 19 no. 4 (1929), 85–6


2b(under pseudonym ‘Albert Alfred Apricott’) ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 10 no. 53 (November 1930), 616–27: IB edited six issues of this periodical, from vol. 10 no. 52 (May 1930) to vol. 12 No 57 (February 1932), jointly with Arthur Calder-Marshall for no. 52, with Richard Goodman for nos 55–7; there are unsigned editorials in vol. 10 no. 52 (May 1930), 467–9, and vol. 11 no. 56 (November 1931), 157–60, which may be wholly or partly by IB, though the style is not obviously his

3‘Some Procrustations’, Oxford Outlook 10 no. 52 (May 1930), 491–502

4Editorial, Oxford Outlook 10 no. 53 (November 1930), 561–5

5Review of Ernst Benkard, Undying Faces, Oxford Outlook 10 no. 53 (November 1930), 628–30


6(under pseudonym ‘A.A.A.’: cf. 2b) ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 11 no. 54 (March 1931), 49–53

7(under pseudonym ‘A.A.A.’: cf. 2b) ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 11 no. 55 (June 1931), 131–5

8(unattributed) ‘Oglethorpe University, Ga’, Pelican Record 20 no. 2 (March 1931), 34–40

9Editorial, Oxford Outlook 11 no. 54 (March 1931), 1–2

10‘Alexander Blok’, editorial, Oxford Outlook 11 no. 55 (June 1931), 73–6; see also letter from D. S. Mirsky with comment from IB, ibid. no. 56 (November 1931), 224–5

11Translation of Alexander Blok, ‘The Collapse of Humanism’, Oxford Outlook 11 no. 55 (June 1931), 89–112


12‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 12 no. 57 (February 1932), 61–5

13‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 12 no. 58 (May 1932), 133–8

14Review of Leonard Woolf, After the Deluge, Oxford Outlook 12 no. 57 (February 1932), 68–70


15Review of Havelock Ellis, Views and Reviews: First Series, Criterion 12 no. 7 (January 1933), 295–8


16‘Music in Decline’, review of Constant Lambert, Music Ho!, Spectator 152 (1934), 11 May, 745–6


16a‘Impressionist Philosophy’, review of Henri Bergson, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion, trans. R. A. Andra and C. Brereton, London Mercury 32 (1935), 489–90

17‘Musiciens d’autrefois’, review of Bernard van Dieren, Down Among the Dead Men, Spectator 155 (1935), 732 (letter, 906)

17a‘The Second Confucius’, review of John Dewey, Art as Experience, London Mercury 31 (1934–5), 387–8


18‘The Future of Music’, review of Cecil Gray, Predicaments, or Music and the Future, Spectator 157 (1936), 317–18

18a‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 54 (1935–6), 370 (unattributed), 463–4, 717; 55 (1936–7), 182

19‘Obscurum per obscurius’, review of T. A. Jackson, Dialectics, Spectator 156 (1936), 888

19a‘Plato’, review of G. M. A. Grube, Plato’s Thought, and Vladimir Solovyev, Plato, trans. Richard Gill, with a note on Solovyev by Janko Lavrin, London Mercury 33 (1935–6), 452–3

19bContribution (extract from a personal letter) to Daniel Henry Hertz: In Memoriam (London, 1936: privately printed), 7; whole letter (19 September 1936) published at F 197


19c‘Boyd Neel String Orchestra’, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 588–9

20‘Induction and Hypothesis’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary vol. 16 (1937), 63–102

21‘The Father of Anarchism’, review of E. H. Carr, Michael Bakunin, Spectator 159 (1937), 1186

21a‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 568

21b‘The Mass in D’, review of a performance of Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 558–9

21c(unattributed) ‘Toscanini’, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 719–20

22Review of Julius Weinberg, An Examination of Logical Positivism, Criterion 17 (1937–8), 174–82; repr. as ‘Logical Positivism’ in CC2


23‘The Development of Modern Music’, review of Gerald Abraham, A Hundred Years of Music, Spectator 161 (1938), 489–90

23a‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 56 (1937–8), 770–1; 57 (1938–9), 243

23b‘Laws of Musical Sound’, review of Sir James Jeans, Science and Music, London Mercury 37 (1937–8), 356

23c‘Oxford Subscription Concert’, Oxford Magazine 56 (1937–8), 470–1

23dReview of Constance Maund, Hume’s Theory of Knowledge, Oxford Magazine 57 (1938–9), 224–5


24Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (London, 1939: Thornton Butterworth; Toronto, 1939: Nelson); ‘the best elementary introduction to Marx for the English reader’, The Times Literary Supplement, 13 September 1963, 694

  • Reviews
  • [Charques, Richard Denis,] ‘In the Name of Marx: The Philosopher and the Right’, The Times Literary Supplement, 7 October 1939, 570
  • Rowse, A. L., Political Quarterly 11 no. 1 (January 1940), 127–30; repr. in id., The End of an Epoch: Reflections on Contemporary History (London, 1947: Macmillan), 253–6

2nd ed. (London, 1948: Oxford University Press; New York, 1959: Oxford University Press); repr. with corrections (London and New York, 1960: Oxford University Press); trans. French, German (with extra material)

  • Reviews
  • Bruhat, Jean, Pensée, April 1963, 145–7; extremely negative
  • Maus, Heinz, review of Karl Marx: sein Leben und sein Werk, Neue Politische Literatur 6 no. 6 (January 1961), 492

3rd ed. (London and New York, 1963: Oxford University Press; New York, 1963: Time Inc.; [Tokyo], 1963: Oxford University Press/Maruzen) (‘after nearly forty years still gleams like the golden bough through the murky forest of literature about Marx’: Hugh Lloyd-Jones, The Times Literary Supplement, 4 February 1977, 118); trans. Dutch, Finnish, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish

4th ed., with a guide to further reading by Terrell Carver (Oxford and New York, 1978: Oxford University Press; London, 1978: Book Club Associates; foreword by Alan Ryan, London, 1995: Fontana Press); trans. Dutch, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish

5th ed., ed. Henry Hardy, foreword by Alan Ryan and afterword and (revised) guide to further reading by Terrell Carver (Princeton and Oxford, 2013: Princeton University Press); a thoroughly revised text with references added for quotations

25‘Verification’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 39 (1938–9), 225–48; repr. in G. H. R. Parkinson (ed.), The Theory of Meaning (London, 1968: Oxford University Press), Mark J. Smith (ed.), Philosophy and Methodology of the Social Sciences, vol. 1, Canons and Custodians: Scientific Enquiry in the 20th Century(London, 2005: Sage), 35–53, and CC; trans. Spanish

26Review of Karl Britton, Communication, Mind 48 (1939), 518–27


26a‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 58 (1939–40), 306–7


27‘The Man Who Became a Myth’, Listener 38 (1947), 23–5; repr. in John Morris (ed.), From the Third Programme: A Ten Years’ Anthology (London, 1956: Nonesuch Press) (with the subtitle ‘Belinsky and his Influence on Nineteenth-Century Russia’), and POI

27aReview of Ralph Parker, ‘How do you do, Tovarich?’, Listener 38 (1947), 543, 545

28Review of Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, Mind 56 (1947), 151–66; repr. in A. D. Irvine (ed.), Bertrand Russell: History of Philosophy, Ethics, Education, Religion and Politics, vol. 4 of Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, 4 vols (London and New York, 1998: Routledge), and as ‘Russell’s History of Philosophy’ in CTH2

28a‘Digest’ of Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, British Book News 80 (April 1947), 210–11; repr. in British Book News 1947 (London, 1949)


29‘Karajan: A Study’, Observer, 19 September 1948, 2

30‘Russia and 1848’, Slavonic Review 26 (1948), 341–60; repr. in Heinz Lubasz (ed.), Revolutions in Modern European History (New York/London, 1966: Macmillan/Collier-Macmillan) (with revisions), and RT; trans. Polish, Russian

30aReview of Bishop Fan S. Noli, Beethoven and the French Revolution, English Historical Review 63 (1948), 565–6

30bReview of Henri Troyat, Firebrand: The Life of Dostoevsky, Listener 40 (1948), 102


31‘The Anglo-American Predicament’, Listener 42 (1949), 518–19 and 538 (letters, 681, 813, 815)

31aContribution to ‘Notes on the Way’ column, Time and Tide 30 (1949), 1133–4, 1157–8, 1187–8; repr. as ‘The Intellectual Life of American Universities’ in E

32‘Mr Churchill’ (review of Churchill’s 2nd vol. of war memoirs, Their Finest Hour), Atlantic Monthly 184 no. 3 (September 1949), 35–44; as ‘Mr Churchill and FDR’, Cornhill Magazine 981 (Winter 1949/1950), 219–40 (‘a bright fire of affection and confidence’, The Times Literary Supplement, 23 December 1949, 846); repr. in Edward Weeks and Emily Flint (eds), New England Oracle: A Choice Selection from One Hundred Years of the Atlantic Monthly (London, 1958: Collins), as Mr Churchill in 1940 (London, [1964]; John Murray; Boston/Cambridge, n.d.: Houghton Mifflin/Riverside Press) (‘The finest and most penetrating salute that has yet been written’, Sunday Times, quoted in The Times Literary Supplement, 18 February 1965, 120), and as ‘Winston Churchill in 1940’ in PI and PSM; excerpted as ‘Roosevelt and Churchill: A Study of Two Great Personalities’ in News Chronicle, 12 December 1949, 2; trans. German

33‘Three Who Made a Revolution’, review of Bertram D. Wolfe, Three Who Made a Revolution, American Historical Review 55 (1949), 86–92

34Review of G. V. Plekhanov, In Defence of Materialism, trans. Andrew Rothstein, Slavonic Review 28 (1949–50), 257–62 (letter, 607–10)

34a‘Attitude on Marxism Stated: Dr Berlin Amplifies His Remarks Made at Mount Holyoke’ (letter), New York Times, 8 July 1949, 18; repr. at E 99–100

34bReview of Leopold Schwarzschild, The Red Prussian: The Life and Legend of Karl Marx, International Affairs 25 (1949), 532–3


35‘Empirical Propositions and Hypothetical Statements’, Mind 59 (1950), 289–312; repr. in Robert J. Schwartz (ed.), Perceiving, Sensing, and Knowing (New York, 1965: Doubleday), Mark J. Smith (ed.), Philosophy and Methodology of the Social Sciences, vol. 1, Canons and Custodians: Scientific Enquiry in the 20th Century(London, 2005: Sage), 71–94, and CC

36‘Logical Translation’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 50 (1949–50), 157–88; repr. in Mark J. Smith (ed.), Philosophy and Methodology of the Social Sciences, vol. 1, Canons and Custodians: Scientific Enquiry in the 20th Century(London, 2005: Sage), 95–119, and CC

36a‘The Trends of Culture’, contribution to ‘The Year 1949 in Historical Perspective’, in 1950 Britannica Book of the Year (Chicago/Toronto/London, 1950: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.), xxii–xxxi

37‘Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century’, Foreign Affairs 28 (1950), 351–85; repr. in FEL and L and in part in David Cooperman and E. V. Walter (eds), Power and Civilization: Political Thought in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1962: Crowell); trans. German, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Russian (in part, from Hebrew (see 112))

38‘Socialism and Socialist Theories’, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (London, 1950: Newnes; New York, 1950: Oxford University Press), vol. 12, 638–50 (‘a quite outstanding article’, The Times Literary Supplement, 4 August 1950, 486); revised in 1966 ed. (Oxford, New York etc.: Pergamon), vol. 12, 640–52; repr. with further revisions in SR

39Translation of Ivan Turgenev, First Love: with Rudin, trans. Alex Brown, and an introduction by Lord David Cecil (London, 1950: Hamish Hamilton) (‘it is a refreshing fact that there exist in this country a few writers whose sensibility to [the Russian] classics is matched by their command of Russian and English, so that from time to time we are given an insight as acute as that provided by Mr Isaiah Berlin in his translation of Turgenev’s First Love’: [Alan Pryce-Jones,] The Times Literary Supplement, 18 December 1953, 817); illustrated ‘with charming new drawings by Fritz Wegner’ (The Times Literary Supplement, 11 January 1957, 21), but without Rudin (London, 1956: Hamish Hamilton; London, 1965: Panther; Harmondsworth, 1977: Penguin); repr. with an introduction by V. S. Pritchett (Harmondsworth, 1978: Penguin); reissued (with Cecil’s introduction) with 66 as First Love [and] A Fire at Sea (London, 1982: Hogarth Press; New York, 1983: Viking); reissued solo in Great Loves series (London etc., 2007: Penguin); reissued with 66 and Spring Torrents (trans. Leonard Schapiro) as First Love and Other Stories (London, 1994: David Campbell Publishers [Everyman’s Library]); excerpt in Elizabeth Jane Howard (ed.), The Lover’s Companion (Newton Abbott, 1978: David and Charles; London, 1997: Macmillan); trans. Malay

  • Reviews
  • Dinnage, Paul, ‘Russian Tales’ (also reviews other translations of Turgevev), Spectator, 22 September 1950, 328
  • Smart, Elizabeth, ‘Ah, Me!’, Spectator, 2 April 1977, 28–9; ‘Isaiah Berlin’s translation is a beautiful virtuoso performance, without bump or jar’

39a‘Soviet Beginnings’, review of E. H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia, vol. 1: The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923, Sunday Times, 10 December 1950, 3

40‘Russian Literature: The Great Century’, review of D. S. Mirsky, A History of Russian Literature, Nation 170 (1950), 180–3, 207–8

41‘The Energy of Pasternak’, review of Boris Pasternak, Selected Writings, Partisan Review 17 (1950), 748–51; repr. in Victor Erlich (ed.), Pasternak: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978: Prentice-Hall)

41a‘ “ A Sense of Reality” about Russia’, review of Walter Bedell Smith, My Three Years in Moscow, New York Times Book Review, 8 January 1950, 1, 25

42‘A View of Russian Literature’, review of Marc Slonim, The Epic of Russian Literature, Partisan Review 17 (1950), 617–23


43‘Jewish Slavery and Emancipation’, Jewish Chronicle, 21 September 1951, 17, 24; 28 September 1951, 17, 19; 5 October 1951, 13, 15; 12 October 1951, 8; repr. from Norman Bentwich (ed.), Hebrew University Garland (London, 1952: Constellation Books), 18–42; repr. in Zalman Shazar and Nathan Rotenstreich (eds), Forum for the Problems of Zionism, World Jewry and the State of Israel 1 (December 1953 [Jerusalem: Information Dept of the Jewish Agency]) – repr. therefrom as Herzl Institute Pamphlet no. 18 (New York, 1961: Herzl Press) – in Debates on Zionism: Anthology of Viewpoints on the Meaning and Significance of Israel, the Diasporah and Zionism (Tel Aviv, [1969?]: Ichud Habonim/Dror) and in POI; trans. Catalan, French, Hebrew; see also 152a

  • Review
  • Himmelfarb, Milton, ‘Unease in Zionism’, review of Zalman Shazar and Nathan Rotenstreich (eds), Forum: For the Problems of Zionism, World Jewry and the State of Israel no. 1 (December 1953 [Jerusalem: Information Dept of the Jewish Agency]) (which includes IB’s essay), Commentary 18 (October 1954), 378–82

44‘Lev Tolstoy’s Historical Scepticism’, Oxford Slavonic Papers 2 (1951), 17–54 (‘ambitious and stimulating […] This is one of the most interesting and important contributions to Tolstoyan criticism to appear […] for many years’, The Times Literary Supplement, 25 January 1952, 81); repr. with additions as The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Tolstoy’s View of History (London, 1953: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1953: Simon and Schuster; New York, 1957: New American Library; New York, 1986: Simon and Schuster, with an introduction by Michael Walzer); excerpt in John Curtis (ed.), Weidenfeld and Nicolson: Fifty Years of Publishing (London, 1999: Weidenfeld and Nicolson), 28–32; repr. in RT and PSM; PSM text reprinted separately (London, 1992: Phoenix; Chicago, 1993: Ivan R. Dee) and excerpted as Tolstoy and History (London, 1996: Phoenix); trans. Finnish, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian (in part), Polish, Russian, Spanish; see also 173

  • Reviews
  • anon., Plain View 8 no. 4 (February 1954), 236
  • Gardiner, Patrick, Philosophy 30 (1955), 279–82
  • Ivask, George, Russian Review 14 no. 4 (October 1955), 379–81
  • Niebuhr, Reinhold, New Leader, 22 March 1954, 24
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, ‘Many Things v. One Big Thing’, Encounter, November 1953, 77–9

2nd. ed. of HF, ed. Henry Hardy, foreword by Michael Ignatieff (Princeton, 2013: Princeton University Press); adds an appendix containing a parody by John Bowle (‘The Owl and the Pussy-Cat’), a review by A. J. P. Taylor, (extracts from) letters (276), extracts from interviews with Michael Ignatieff, and other material

44a‘Nineteen Fifty: A Survey of Politico-Cultural Trends of the Year’, in 1951 Britannica Book of the Year (Chicago/Toronto/London, 1951: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.), xxii–xxxi

45‘On Translating Turgenev’, review of I. S. Turgenev, Smoke, On the Eve, Virgin Soil, Fathers and Children and A House of Gentle Folk, trans. Constance Garnett, Observer, 11 November1951, 7

45aReview of E. H. Carr, Studies in Revolution, International Affairs 27 (1951), 470–1

45bReview of Benoît-P. Hepner, Bakounine et le panslavisme révolutionnaire, Slavonic Review 30 (1951–2), 280–5

45c‘This Modern Age’, review of Hans Kohn, The Twentieth Century, Jewish Chronicle, 10 August 1951, 10


46(under pseudonym ‘O. Utis’) ‘Generalissimo Stalin and the Art of Government’, Foreign Affairs 30 (1952), 197–214; repr. as ‘The Artificial Dialectic: Generalissimo Stalin and the Art of Government’ in SM; trans. German, Russian, Swedish

46a‘Lament for Lipatti’, House and Garden 7 No 3 (March 1952), 91, 98

46b‘Nineteen Fifty-One: A Survey of Cultural Trends of the Year’, in Britannica Book of the Year 1952 (Chicago/Toronto/London, 1952: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.), xxii–xxxi

47Review of Benedetto Croce, My Philosophy, Mind 61 (1952), 574–8

48Review of Morton White, Social Thought in America, Mind 61 (1952), 405–9

49‘Dr Chaim Weizmann’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 17 November 1952, 8

50‘The Fate of Liberty’ (letter), The Times, 16 December 1952, 9; repr. at E 343–4

50aContribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Sunday Times, 21 December 1952, 6


51‘Henderson at Oxford: 1. All Souls’, in T. Wilson (ed.), ‘Sir Hubert Henderson, 1890–1952’, supplement to Oxford Economic Papers 5 (1953), 55–8; repr. as ‘Hubert Henderson at All Souls’ in PI

52‘Israel: A Survey’, in The State of Israel (London, 1953: Anglo-Israel Association), 42–55; repr. as ‘The Face of Israel’, Jewish Frontier 21 no. 5 (May 1954), 22–30, in Israel: Some Aspects of the New State (London, 1955: Anglo-Israel Association) and as ‘The Origins of Israel’ in Walter Z. Laqueur (ed.), The Middle East in Transition (London, 1958: Routledge and Kegan Paul), and POI; trans. French, German

53(unattributed) ‘Thinkers or Philosophers?’, review of N. O. Lossky, History of Russian Philosophy, The Times Literary Supplement, 27 March 1953, 197–8

53aReview of Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, trans. F. C. A. Koelnn and J. P. Pettegrove, English Historical Review 68 (1953), 617–19

53bReview of George L. Kline, Spinoza in Soviet Philosophy, Oxford Magazine 71 (1952–3), 232–3

53cContribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Sunday Times, 20 December 1953, 6, on Virginia Woolf, A Writer’s Diary

53d‘Madame Akhmatova’ (letter), New Republic, 14 September 1953, 22–3 (reply to article by Michael Straight)


54Historical Inevitability [delivered under the title ‘History as an Alibi’], Auguste Comte Memorial Trust Lecture no. 1 (London, 1954: Oxford University Press), 76 pp. (‘a cavalry charge of the intellect – vast, exciting, glitteringly colourful and somewhat disorganised’: [Anthony Quinton,] The Times Literary Supplement, 21 December 1956, 769; ‘a dazzling display of intellectual fireworks’: [E. H. Carr,] The Times Literary Supplement, 7 March 1975, 246); repr. in Auguste Comte Memorial Lectures 1953–1962 (London, 1964: Athlone Press), FEL and L, Patrick Gardiner (ed.), The Philosophy of History (London, 1974: Oxford University Press), and PSM; excerpted in Hans Meyerhoff (ed.), The Philosophy of History in Our Time: An Anthology (New York, 1959: Doubleday), and Ronald. H. Nash (ed.), Ideas of History (New York, 1969: Dutton); trans. Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish

  • Reviews
  • anon., Plain View 9 no. 4 (February 1955), 263
  • [Carr, E. H.,] ‘History and Morals’ (leading article), The Times Literary Supplement, 17 December 1954; review of Historical Inevitability
  • Dawson, Christopher, Harvard Law Review 70 (1956–7), 584–8
  • Deutscher, Isaac, ‘Determinists All’, Observer, 16 January, 1955, 8
  • Fairlie, Henry, ‘Mr Berlin’s Anti-Determinism’, Spectator, 14 January 1955, 48
  • Kristol, Irving, ‘The Judgement of Clio’, Encounter, January 1955, 67–9
  • Niebuhr, Reinhold, New Leader, 21 November 1955, 23
  • Rickman, H. P., ‘The Horizons of History’ (also reviews two works by other authors), Hibbert Journal 56 (October 1957 to July 1958), January 1958, 167–76
  • Stewart, J. B., Political Science Quarterly 71 (1956), 291–2

54a‘Men Who Lead’ (on Chaim Weizmann), Jerusalem Post, 2 November 1954, 5, 6; repr. as ‘The Anatomy of Leadership’ in Jewish Frontier 21 no. 12 (December 1954), 13–17, and as ‘Chaim Weizmann’s Leadership’ in POI

55‘Realism in Politics’, Spectator 193 (1954), 774–6; repr. in SR

55a‘Calling America to Greatness’, review of Adlai Stevenson, Call to Greatness, Sunday Times, 5 December 1954, 6

55b(ed. with Stuart Hampshire and Richard Wollheim) The Library of Ideas, a ‘new and useful series of the less familiar masterpieces of social and political thought’ ([E. H. Carr], The Times Literary Supplement, 28 January 1955, 57) (London, 1954–6: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)


56‘Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty’, in Ernest J. Simmons (ed.), Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Thought (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955: Harvard University Press), 473–99 (‘the best written … article in the book’: [E. H. Carr,] The Times Literary Supplement, 20 April 1956, 229); repr. in RT; trans. Russian

57‘A Marvellous Decade: Literature and Social Criticism in Russia, 1838–48’, Northcliffe Lectures for 1954; repr. as ‘A Remarkable Decade’ in RT; trans. Italian, Russian

I‘1838–48: The Birth of the Russian Intelligentsia’, Encounter 4 no. 6 (June 1955), 27–39; trans. Russian

II‘1838–48: German Romanticism in Petersburg and Moscow’, Encounter 5 no. 11 (November 1955), 21–9

III‘Belinsky: Moralist and Prophet’, Encounter 5 No 12 (December 1955), 22–43

IV‘Herzen and the Grand Inquisitors’, Encounter 6 No 5 (May 1956), 20–34; repr. as ‘Alexander Herzen’ in Stephen Spender, Irving Kristol and Melvin J. Lasky (eds), Encounters: An Anthology from the First Ten Years of Encounter Magazine (New York, 1965: Simon and Schuster), and as introduction to Alexander Herzen, Childhood, Youth and Exile, trans. J. D. Duff (Oxford, 1980: Oxford University Press); excerpted in John Gross (ed.), The New Oxford Book of English Prose (Oxford, 1998: Oxford University Press); trans. French, Japanese, Russian

58‘Montesquieu’, Proceedings of the British Academy 41 (1955), 267–96; repr. in AC; trans. Estonian

59(with Anthony Quinton, Stuart Hampshire and Iris Murdoch) ‘Philosophy and Beliefs’, Twentieth Century 157 (1955), 495–521 (‘a good working example, for the outsider, of what “academic virtue” – as a free collaboration of minds towards the clarification of important uncertainties – means in practice’: [G. S. Fraser,] The Times Literary Supplement, 10 June 1955, 317)

60‘Roosevelt through European Eyes’, Atlantic Monthly 196 no. 1 (July1955), 67–71; as ‘President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’, Political Quarterly 26 (1955), 336–44 (repr. under this title in PI and PSM); repr. as ‘The Natural’ in Robert Vare with Daniel B. Smith (ed.), The American Idea: The Best of the Atlantic Monthly: 150 Years of Writers and Thinkers Who Shaped Our History (New York etc., 2007: Doubleday), 229–37

61‘The Furious Vissarion’, review of Herbert E. Bowman, Vissarion Belinski, New Statesman and Nation 50 (July–December 1955), 447–8; repr. in New Leader (U. S. A.), 16 January 1956, 21–2

61a‘Words of Wisdom’, review of The Table Talk of a Modern Sage: Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead, OM, as recorded by Lucien Price, Jewish Chronicle, 18 February 1955, 18

61b‘Marx as Historian’ (letter), New Statesman and Nation 50 (July–December 1955), 366; repr. at E 499–500

61c(with Rose Macaulay, Raymond Mortimer and Harold Nicolson), ‘Last Asquithian’ (letter), New Statesman and Nation49 (January–June 1955), 8 January, 45; written in response to an article of that title on Violet Bonham Carter, ibid. 48 (July–December 1954), 11 December, 781


62(ed. with introduction and commentary) The Age of Enlightenment: The 18th Century Philosophers (Boston, 1956: Houghton Mifflin [hardback]; New York, 1956: New American Library [paperback]; Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press [hardback and paperback]); introduction excerpted in Jack Lively (ed.), The Enlightenment (London, 1966: Longmans), and repr. as ‘The Philosophers of the Enlightenment’ in POI; trans. Chinese; IB was informally a consulting editor for the whole series of six books (The Great Ages of Western Philosophy in hardback, The Mentor Philosophers in paperback) of which this was the third, though he disclaimed expertise on the periods covered by the first two volumes

  • Anne Fremantle, The Age of Belief: The Medieval Philosophers
  • Giorgio de Santillana, The Age of Adventure: The Renaissance Philosophers
  • Stuart Hampshire, The Age of Reason: The 17th Century Philosophers
  • Isaiah Berlin, The Age of Enlightenment: The 18th Century Philosophers
  • Henry D. Aiken, The Age of Ideology: The 19th Century Philosophers
  • Morton White, The Age of Analysis: The 20th Century Philosophers
  • Reviews
  • ~ Barrett, William, ‘Great Philosophy in Small Packets’ (reviews the whole six-volume series), New York Times, 17 March 1957, Book Review, 23: ‘Isaiah Berlin contributes a brilliant and very readable introduction to the […] volume on the eighteenth century, The Age of Enlightenment.’
  • Thayer, H. S., Journal of Philosophy 55 no. 21 (October 1958), 913–16: ‘Mr Berlin’s introduction to these readings and his commentaries upon them are remarkable for their expository clarity and the suggestive insights and acute observations they contain. Mr Berlin offers us concise and penetrating reflections on the fundamental ideas, some of the problems that generated them, and some of the difficulties engendered by them in Locke, Berkeley and Hume. Not much is missed here.’
  • Wilson, Arthur M., William and Mary Quarterly 14 no. 1 (January 1957), 89–97: ‘Mr Berlin, by the selections he has made and even more by his introduction and running commentary, confers upon his reader a comfortable sense of grasping the great issues that beset the philosophers of the day. He is not content merely to choose and summarise, though he does the one with fine judgement and the other with great lucidity; he also criticises and compares. The result is excellent.’

2nd ed.: Isaiah Berlin, with the assistance of Marcus Dick, The Age of Enlightenment: The Eighteenth-Century Philosophers, ed. Henry Hardy, published exclusively online in the IBVL (Oxford, 2017: The Isaiah Berlin Literary Trust)

63Introduction to Alexander Herzen, From the Other Shore and The Russian People and Socialism (London, 1956: Weidenfeld and Nicolson [part of 55b]; Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press), vii–xxiii/xxv; repr. with postscript as ‘“ A Revolutionary Without Fanaticism” ’, New York Review of Books, 19 April 1979, 16–21, and (with further revisions) in POI; trans. Finnish, Italian, Japanese, Russian

64‘Equality’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56 (1955–6), 301–26; repr. as ‘Equality as an Ideal’ in Frederick A. Olafson (ed.), Justice and Social Policy: A Collection of Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1961: Prentice-Hall), the Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Political Science, no. 68812, and CC

65‘The Father of Russian Marxism’ (Plekhanov), Listener 56 (1956), 1063–4, 1077; repr. in New Leader (USA), 4 February 1957, 14–17 (as ‘Father of Russian Socialism’), and POI; trans. French, Russian

65a‘Portrait of a Nineteenth-Century Prophet’, review of George Woodcock, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Sunday Times, 21 October 1956, 8


66‘An Episode in the Life of Ivan Turgenev’, London Magazine 4 no. 7 (July 1957), 14–24 (includes translation of Turgenev’s ‘A Fire at Sea’); reissued with 39 as First Love [and] A Fire at Sea (London, 1982: Hogarth Press; New York, 1983: Viking)

67‘The Silence in Russian Culture’, Foreign Affairs 36 (1957), 1–24; repr. in Hamilton Fish Armstrong (ed.), Fifty Years of Foreign Affairs (New York, 1973: Praeger for the Council on Foreign Relations; London, 1973: Pall Mall), and James F. Hoge, Jr, and Fareed Zakaria (eds), The American Encounter: The United States and the Making of the Modern World, Essays from 75 Years of ‘Foreign Affairs’ (New York, 1997: Basic Books); repr. with 68 as ‘Soviet Russian Culture’ in SM; trans. Russian

68(under pseudonym ‘L. ’) ‘The Soviet Intelligentsia’, Foreign Affairs 36 (1957), 122–30; repr. with 67 as ‘Soviet Russian Culture’ in SM; trans. German, Russian

68a(with Edgar Lustgarten and Lords Hailsham and Russell) ‘London Forum’ (discussion of ‘The Role of Great Men in History’), London Calling, 31 January 1957, 3–4, 10

69(with Miriam Rothschild) ‘Mr James de Rothschild: “ Grand Seigneur” ’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 13 May 1957, 15

69a(with others) ‘Budapest Sentences’ (letter), Manchester Guardian, 25 June 1957, 6

69b(with others) ‘Murder in Budapest’ (letter), Daily Telegraph, 25 June 1957, 8


70Chaim Weizmann, 2nd Herbert Samuel Lecture (London, 1958: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, n. d.: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy), 60 pp.; repr. as Herzl Institute Pamphlet no. 8 (New York, 1958: Herzl Press); with an introduction by Charlotte Jacobson (New York, 1974: World Zionist Organization, American Section); and in PI; excerpted as ‘Weizmann and England: The First President of Israel’s Complex Relationship with England’ in Judaism Today no. 9 (Spring 1998), Israel’s First 50 Years, 17–21

  • Review
  • Halpern, Ben, ‘An Authentic Leader’, Commentary 27 (1959), 445–7; sceptical

71Two Concepts of Liberty, Inaugural Lecture as Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory (Oxford, 1958: Clarendon Press), 55 pp.; repr. in FEL, PSM and L, in Preston King (ed.), The Study of Politics: A Collection of Inaugural Lectures (London, 1977: Frank Cass) and Philip Pettit and Robert E. Goodin (eds), Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology (Oxford, 1998: Blackwell), and in part in William Ebenstein (ed.), Modern Political Thought: The Great Issues, 2nd ed. (New York, 1960: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) (as ‘Freedom: Negative or Positive?’), Iain MacKenzie (ed.), Political Concepts: A Reader and Guide(Edinburgh, 2005: Edinburgh University Press), Anthony Quinton (ed.), Political Philosophy (London, 1967: Oxford University Press), David Miller (ed.), Liberty (Oxford, 1991: Oxford University Press), Michael Sandel (ed.), Liberalism and Its Critics (Oxford, 1984: Blackwell), Nigel Warburton, Arguments for Freedom(Milton Keynes, 1999: The Open University), David Miller (ed.), The Liberty Reader(Boulder and London, 2006: Paradigm), Robert Senelle and others (eds), The Road to Political Democracy: From Plato to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (Brussels, 2012: Academic and Scientific Publishers), and Matt Zwolinski (ed.), Arguing about Political Philosophy (New York and London, 2009: Routledge); ed. with notes by Kimiyoshi Yura (Kyoto, 1967: Apollon-sha); trans. Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, Dutch, Estonian, Georgian, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Slovenian (in part), Spanish, Ukrainian

  • Reviews
  • Macdonald, Dwight, ‘On the Rightness of Mr Berlin’, Encounter, April 1959, 79–85
  • Sen Amartya, ‘Determinism and Historical Predictions’, Enquiry (Delhi) 2 (1959), 99–115, at 113–14
  • [Wollheim, Richard], ‘A Hundred Years After’, The Times Literary Supplement, 20 February 1959, 89–90

72‘Richard Pares’, Balliol College Record 1958, 32–4; repr. in PI

72aContribution (principally on Boris Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago) to ‘Books of the Year: I’, Sunday Times, 21 December 1958, 6

72b(with others) ‘Homosexual Acts: Call to Reform Law’ (letter), The Times, 7 March 1958, 11

72c(not directly attributed) ‘Elysian Schools’,Oxford Magazine, 20 February 1958, 298–9; repr. in BI


73European Unity and Its Vicissitudes (Amsterdam, 1959: Fondation Européenne de la Culture), 31 pp.; repr. in CTH and Mathieu Segers and Yeri Albracht (eds), Re:Thinking Europe: Thoughts on Europe: Past, Present and Future (Amsterdam, 2006: Amsterdam University Press), 37–52; trans. Arabic, Estonian, French, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Spanish

74John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life, Robert Waley Cohen Memorial Lecture (London, 1959: Council of Christians and Jews), 32 pp.; repr. in FEL and L, in John Gray and G. W. Smith (eds), J. S. Mill On Liberty in Focus (London and New York, 1991: Routledge), as introduction to John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and Utilitarianism, Everyman’s Library 81 (London, 1992: David Campbell; New York, 1992: Knopf), and in part as ‘Introductory Essay’ in John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and Considerations on Representative Government (London, 2008: Folio Society), ix–xxv; trans. Japanese

75The Life and Opinions of Moses Hess, Lucien Wolf Memorial Lecture (Cambridge, 1959: Heffer), 49 pp. (‘scintillating and deeply felt […] equally illuminating for the history of Communism and the history of Zionism’: [Norman Bentwich,] The Times Literary Supplement, 18 December 1959, 743); digest in Jewish Chronicle, 13 December 1957, 19; repr. in Philip Rieff (ed.), On Intellectuals (New York, 1969: Doubleday), Ezra Mendelsohn (ed.), Essential Papers on Jews and the Left (New York and London, 1997: New York University Press), and AC; trans. Estonian, French, Russian

  • Reviews
  • Essig, S. B., Revue de l’Institut de Sociologie 34 no. 3 (January 1961), 591
  • Joll, James, ‘The Communist Rabbi’, Spectator, 27 November 1959, 776

75a‘An Oxford Manifesto’ (letters), New Statesman 58 (July-December 1959), 511 (repr. at E 703–4), 582

75b(with others) ‘Lolita’ (letter), The Times, 23 January 1959, 11

75cLetter (on Moses Hess), Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 18 December 1959, 17


76Introduction to Franco Venturi, Roots of Revolution (London, 1960: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1966: Grosset and Dunlap), vii–xxx (‘The concluding paragraphs […] are nothing if not controversial; and Sir Isaiah’s favourite Aunt Sallies – notably, the inevitability of history in general and of the Russian Revolution in particular – come in for a good bashing’: [E. H. Carr,] The Times Literary Supplement, 12 August 1960, 507); repr. as ‘Russian Populism’ in Encounter 15 No1 (July 1960), 13–28, and RT; trans. Russian

77‘History and Theory: The Concept of Scientific History’, History and Theory 1 (1960), 1–31; repr. in Alexander V. Riasanovsky and Barnes Riznik (eds), Generalizations in Historical Writing (Philadelphia, 1963: University of Pennsylvania Press), and as ‘The Concept of Scientific History’ in William H. Dray (ed.), Philosophical Analysis and History (New York, 1966: Harper and Row), CC and PSM; trans. German (in part), Japanese, Russian, Spanish

78‘Marx’, in J. O. Urmson (ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers (London, 1960: Hutchinson; 2nd ed. 1975), 176–81; repr. in POI; trans. Spanish

79‘The Philosophical Ideas of Giambattista Vico’, in Art and Ideas in Eighteenth-Century Italy (Rome, 1960: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura), 156–233; repr. in revised form in VH and TCE; trans. Hebrew; see also 99

79a‘No Earthly Paradise’, review of Reinhold Niebuhr, Nations and Empires, Guardian, 25 November 1960, 7

79bReview of Richard Hare, Portraits of Russian Personalities between Reform and Revolution, English Historical Review 75 (1960), 500–2

80Review of Henry Vyverberg, Historical Pessimism in the French Enlightenment, French Studies 14 (1960), 167–70

80a(with others) ‘S.A. Boycott’ (letter), Isis, 11 May 1960, 19


81‘La théorie politique existe-t-elle?’, Revue française de science politique 11 (1961), 309–37; repr. in English as ‘Does Political Theory Still Exist?’ in Peter Laslett and W. G. Runciman (eds), Philosophy, Politics and Society, 2nd Series (Oxford, 1962: Blackwell) (‘His answer is extremely nuancé but definitely hopeful’: [A. H. Hanson,] The Times Literary Supplement, 3 May 1963, 318), CC and PSM; trans. Estonian, Japanese, Spanish

  • Review
  • ~ Oakeshott, M[ichael], review of Laslett and Runciman, Philosophical Quarterly 15 no. 60 (July 1965), 281–2; his remarks on IB (Oakeshott’s only published comments on his work?) are on 282

81a(unattributed) ‘Research Institutions’, chapter 9 of Research in the Humanities and the Social Sciences: Report of a Survey by the British Academy 1958–1960 (London, 1961: Oxford University Press)

82‘Tolstoy and Enlightenment’, Hermon Ould Memorial Lecture for 1960, Encounter 16 no. 2 (February 1961), 29–40; letter, The Times Literary Supplement, 2 December 1960, 779; lecture repr. in Mightier Than The Sword (London, 1964: Macmillan), Ralph E. Matlaw (ed.), Tolstoy: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, [1967]: Prentice-Hall), and RT; trans. Russian, Spanish

82aReview of Elie Kedourie, Nationalism, Oxford Magazine, New Series 1 (1960–1), 147–8

83‘What is History?’ (an exchange of letters with E. H. Carr), Listener 65 (1961), 877, 1048–9; repr. at E 41–2, 48–50

83a(with others) telegram dated 14 March 1961 to Ferenc Münnich, Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Budapest, urging the release of István Bibó, in ‘Release of Hungarian Professor Urged’, The Times, 17 March 1961, 7f; repr. – with different wording, probably because back-translated from Tibor Huszár (ed.), István Bibó (1911–1979): Életút dokumentumokban [A Life in Documents] (Budapest, 1995: 1956-os Intézet-Osiris-századvég), 543 – in Iván Zoltán Dénes, ‘Personal Liberty and Political Freedom: Four Interpretations’, European Journal of Political Theory 7 no. 1 (January 2008), 81–98 at 93 (signatories listed at 97); trans. Hungarian; cf. 87a


84‘The Biographical Facts’, in Meyer W. Weisgal and Joel Carmichael (eds), Chaim Weizmann: A Biography by Several Hands (London, 1962: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1963: Atheneum), 17–56 (‘a brilliant survey’: [Norman Bentwich,] The Times Literary Supplement, 21 December 1962, 983); repr. in Dan Leon and Yehuda Adin (eds), Chaim Weizmann, Statesman of the Jewish Renaissance (Jerusalem, 1974: The Zionist Library); trans. French, Hebrew, Spanish

85‘The Purpose of Philosophy’, Insight (Nigeria) 1 no. 1 (July 1962), 12–15; repr. in the Sunday Times, 4 November 1962, 23, 26, in Viewpoint no. 6 (1963 no. 2), 29–31, as ‘Philosophy’s Goal’ in Leonard Russell (ed.), Encore, 2nd Year (London, 1963: Michael Joseph) (as ‘Philosophy’s Goal’), in CC and in POI; excerpted as ‘A “ Dangerous but Important Activity” ’ in University: A Princeton Quarterly no. 28 (Spring 1966), 1 (repr. in Van Cleve Morris [ (ed.)], Modern Movements in Educational Philosophy (Boston, [1969]: Houghton Mifflin), 9–11); trans. Estonian, Lithuanian, Russian

86‘Mr Carr’s Big Battalions’, review of E. H. Carr, What is History?, New Statesman 63 (January–June 1962), 5 January 1962, 15–16

87(unattributed) ‘The Road to Catastrophe’, review of Hans Kohn, The Mind of Germany, and G. P. Gooch, French Profiles: Prophets and Pioneers, The Times Literary Supplement, 30 March 1962, 216; letter, 20 April 1962, 265

87a(with others) telegram dated 22 February 1962 to János Kádár, Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Budapest, urging the release of István Bibó, in ‘Dr Bibo’s Release Again Urged’, The Times, 6 March 1962, 15c; repr. in Iván Zoltán Dénes, ‘Personal Liberty and Political Freedom: Four Interpretations’, European Journal of Political Theory 7 no. 1 (January 2008), 81–98 at 94 (signatories listed at 97); trans. Hungarian; cf. 83a

87bEndorsement of Raphael R. Abramovich, The Soviet Revolution, 1917–1939 (London, 1962: Allen & Unwin; New York, 1962: International Universities Press), cited in a publisher’s advertisement for the book, ALA Bulletin 56 no. 4 (April 1962), 286, and elsewhere:

The Russian Revolution and its consequences dominate our lives. Nevertheless, the evidence available to Western historians on which an objective account of it can be based is still not extensive. The appearance of a study of it by Mr Raphael Abramovitch, an eyewiteness of and a participant in many of the events that he describes, and a man of scrupulous integrity, constitutes an original source of primary importance and permanent value.


88Contribution to Clara Urquhart (ed.), A Matter of Life (London, 1963: Cape), 39–40; on civil disobedience

89‘Historical Note’, in Khovanshchina (opera programme) ([London], 1963: Royal Opera House Covent Garden Ltd), 5 pp.; repr. in the 1972 programme as ‘Programme Note: Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881)’, as ‘Khovanshchina’ in the 1982 programme and San Francisco Opera, Fall Season 1984, 34–8, and with revisions as ‘A Note on “ Khovanshchina” ’, New York Review of Books, 19 December 1985, 40–2; excerpted as ‘Stasov, Mussorgsky and Khovanshchina’ in The Kirov Opera(opera programme) ([London], 2005: Royal Opera House), 24

90‘Why are these books neglected?’, Twentieth Century 172 no. 1019 (Autumn 1963), 139–47

90a(with others) ‘Dr Ranger’s Expulsion’, The Times, 11 February 1963, 11


91Contribution to Meyer W. Weisgal (New York, 1964), [22]; repr. in Edward Victor (ed.), Meyer Weisgal at Seventy (London, 1966: Weidenfeld and Nicolson) (as ‘A Generous Imaginative Idealist’), and in The Odyssey of an Optimist: Meyer W. Weisgal, An Anthology by His Contemporaries (New York, 1967: Atheneum)

92‘Felix Frankfurter at Oxford’, in Wallace Mendelson (ed.), Felix Frankfurter: A Tribute (New York, 1964: Reynal), 22–31; repr. in Quest 1 (1965), 20–2, and PI

93‘From Hope and Fear Set Free’, Presidential Address, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 64 (1963–4), 1–30; repr. in CC, PSM and L; trans. Estonian

94‘Hobbes, Locke and Professor Macpherson’, review of C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, Hobbes to Locke, Political Quarterly 35 (1964), 444–68

94a‘A Note on Nationalism’, Forethought (Windsor, [1964]: Eton College), 9–14; repr. in POI2

95‘Portrait of Ben-Gurion’, review of Maurice Edelman, Ben-Gurion: A Political Biography, Jewish Chronicle, 25 December 1964, 7, 22

95a‘Rationality of Value Judgments’, Nomos 7 [Carl J. Friedrich (ed.), Rational Decision (New York, 1964: Atherton Press; London, 1964: Prentice-Hall International)], 221–3; repr. as ‘The Rationality of Value Judgements’ in CC2

95b(in paraphrase) Contributions to John Keep and Liliana Brisby (eds), Contemporary History in the Soviet Mirror (London, 1964: George Allen and Unwin), 40–1, 89, 220, 330

95c‘Olga Ivinskaya’ (letter), Observer, 15 March 1964, 11

95dContribution to ‘The Death of Lord Marks’, Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 11 December 1964, 37


96Contribution to Julian Huxley (ed.), Aldous Huxley (London, 1965: Chatto and Windus), 144–53; repr. as ‘Aldous Huxley’ in PI

97Contribution to Ian Kemp (ed.), Michael Tippett: A Symposium on his 60th Birthday (London, 1965: Faber), 62–3

98‘Herder and the Enlightenment’, in Earl R. Wasserman (ed.), Aspects of the Eighteenth Century (Baltimore, 1965: Johns Hopkins Press), 47–104 (‘the most interesting and valuable essay in [the] collection […] we must be grateful that Sir Isaiah’s lucid exposition and gift for suggestive comparisons make Herder’s thought seem so attractive and exciting’, The Times Literary Supplement, 24 November 1966, 1101; ‘an overpowering virtuoso performance’: [Walter Kaufman,] The Times Literary Supplement, 2 January 1976, 14); repr. as ‘J. G. Herder’, Encounter 25 no. 1 (July 1965), 29–48, no. 2 (August 1965), 42–51; repr. in revised form in VH, PSM and TCE; trans. Spanish

98a(with H. L. A. Hart) ‘Postgraduate Studies in Oxford’, in University of Oxford, Commission of Inquiry [‘The Franks Commission’]: Evidence, part 11, Individuals (Oxford, 1965: Oxford University Press), 12–16

99‘Sulla teoria del Vico circa la conoscenza storica’ (a much expanded version of ‘Appendix: On Vico’s Epistemology’ in 79), Lettere italiane 17 (1965), 420–31; repr. as ‘Appendice sulla teoria del Vico circa la conoscenza storica’ in Vittore Branca (ed.), Sensibilità e razionalità nel settecento (Florence, 1967: Sansoni); repr. in revised form as ‘Vico’s Theory of Knowledge and its Sources’ in VH and TCE

100Review of C. P. Courtney, Montesquieu and Burke, Modern Language Review 60 (1965), 449–52

101‘A Great Russian Writer’, review of Osip Mandelstam, The Prose of Osip Mandelstam: The Noise of Time; Theodosia; The Egyptian Stamp, trans. and ed. Clarence Brown (Princeton, 1965: Princeton University Press), New York Review of Books, 23 December 1965, 3–4; repr. in SM

101a‘The Thought of de Tocqueville’, review of Jack Lively, The Social and Political Thought of Alexis de Tocqueville, History 50 (1965), 199–206


102Introduction to Marc Raeff (ed.), Russian Intellectual History (New York/Chicago/Burlingame, 1966: Harcourt, Brace and World; Hassocks, 1978: Harvester; New York, 1978: Humanities Press), 3–11; repr. as ‘Russian Intellectual History’ in POI

103Preface to H. G. Schenk, The Mind of the European Romantics (London, 1966: Constable; New York, 1969: Doubleday; Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press), xiii–xviii; repr. as ‘The Essence of European Romanticism’ in POI; trans. Japanese, Spanish

104‘L. B. Namier: A Personal Impression’, in Martin Gilbert (ed.), A Century of Conflict, 1850–1950: Essays for A. J. P. Taylor (London, 1966: Hamish Hamilton); repr. in Encounter 27 no. 5 (November 1966), 32–42 (letter, 28 no. 1 (January 1967), 92), Journal of Historical Studies 1 (1967–8), 117–36, and PI

104a(with Mary McCarthy and others) ‘The Founders’ (letter), Time, 16 September 1966, 10

105‘The Great Blood Libel Case’, review of Maurice Samuel, Blood Accusation: The Strange History of the Beiliss Case, Jewish Chronicle Literary Supplement, 23 December 1966, 3–4; repr. as ‘The Beiliss Case: Prelude to Revolution’ in Midstream 13 No2 (February 1967), 66–72

106‘New Ways in History’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 21 April 1966, 347; repr. at B 275–7

106aEndorsement of Walter Kaufmann, Hegel: Reinterpretation, Texts and Commentary, on jacket of UK edition (London, 1966: Weidenfeld and Nicolson) and on cover of US paperback edition, Hegel: A Reinterpretation (New York, 1966: Anchor Books); repr. on Walter Kaufmann, Discovering the Mind (New York, 1980: McGraw-Hill), vol. 1, Goethe, Kant and Hegel


107Contribution to Cecil Woolf and John Bagguley (eds), Authors take Sides on Vietnam (New York, 1967: Simon and Schuster), 20–1; repr. as ‘Taking Sides on Vietnam’ at B 601–2

107a(with others) ‘Issues Behind the Oxford Fund’, (letter), The Times, 7 July 1967, 9

107b(with others) ‘Victor Gollancz’ (letter), The Times, 1 August 1967, 9


108Introduction to Alexander Herzen, My Past and Thoughts: The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen, trans. Constance Garnett (London, 1968: Chatto and Windus; New York, 1968: Knopf; ed. and abridged by Dwight Macdonald, New York, 1973: Knopf; London, 1974: Chatto and Windus; Berkeley, 1982: University of California Press), 25 pp.; repr. as ‘The Great Amateur’, New York Review of Books, 14 March 1968, 9–18 (see also 111c below), as ‘Herzen and his Memoirs’ in AC, in Robert B. Silvers, Barbara Epstein and Rea S. Hederman (eds), The First Anthology: 30 Years of The New York Review of Books (New York, 1993: New York Review of Books), and in PSM; trans. German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish

108a‘A Great Benefactor’ [Isaac Wolfson], Rehovot, Summer 1968, 18–21

109Comment on Richard Pipes, ‘The Origins of Bolshevism: The Intellectual Evolution of Young Lenin’, in Richard Pipes (ed.), Revolutionary Russia (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968: Harvard University Press), 52–9

110‘The “ Naïveté ” of Verdi’, Hudson Review 21 (1968), 138–47; repr. from Atti del I congresso internazionale di studi verdiani, 1966 (Parma, 1969: Istituto di Studi Verdiani), 27–35; repr. in About The House 3 no. 1 (March 1969), 8–13, New Republic, 6 October 1979, 30–4, Ernani (opera programme) ([Cardiff, 1979]: Welsh National Opera) (abridged), William Weaver and Martin Chusid (eds), The Verdi Companion (London, 1980: Gollancz), Opera 31 (1980), 128–35, and AC; trans. French, German, Japanese

111‘The Role of the Intelligentsia’, Listener 79 (1968), 563–5; repr. in Derwent May (ed.), Good Talk2: An Anthology from BBC Radio (London, 1969: Gollancz), and POI

111aContribution to ‘Books of the Year: A Personal Choice’, Observer, 22 December 1968, 17

111bContributions to an LSE conference (19–21 May 1967) published as ‘To Define Populism’, Government and Opposition 3 no. 2 (1968), 137–79 at 140, 173–8; a complete transcript of the proceedings of the conference, including more material by IB, is in the library of the LSE under the title ‘London School of Economics Conference on Populism, May 20–21, 1967: Verbatim report’, shelfmark HN 17 C74

111c(with Martin A. Miller) Herzen’s Circle, New York Review of Books, 20 June 1968 (see also 108 above)

111dForeword to G. L. Seidler, The Emergence of the Eastern World: Seven Essays on Political Ideas (Oxford etc., 1968: Pergamon), ix


112Four Essays on Liberty (revised reprints of 37, 54, 71, 74, with a new introduction) (London and New York, 1969: Oxford University Press); trans. Albanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Latvian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat, Spanish, Swedish, Ukrainian

  • Reviews
  • Bayón, J., Revista de Occidente, February 1970, 240
  • Blair, J. A., Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review 9 no. 2 (September 1970), 266–8
  • Howe, Irving, review essay, Harper’s, August 1970, 93–8
  • Powell, Enoch, ‘Concepts of Liberty’ (also reviews Edward Goodman, A Study of Liberty and Revolution), Books and Bookmen 20 no. 8 (May 1975), 23–4; solves problem of free will in 3 sentences
  • Wischke, Mirko, review of Ramin Jahanbegloo, Den Ideen die Stimme wiedergeben: Eine intellektuelle Biographie in Gesprächen; Freiheit: Vier Versuche; and Der Magus des Nordens: J. G. Hamann und der Ursprung des modernen Irrationalismus (German translations of CIB, FEL and MN), Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 51 no. 2 (April 1998), 141–5

113Foreword to Michael Yudkin (ed.), General Education: A Symposium on the Teaching of Non-Specialists (Harmondsworth, 1969: Allen Lane/Penguin), 9–20; repr. as ‘General Education’ in Oxford Review of Education 1 (1975), 287–92, and POI; trans. Japanese

113a‘The Hazards of Social Revolution’, in Aaron W. Warner, Dean Morse and Thomas E. Cooney (eds), The Environment of Change (New York and London, 1969: Columbia University Press), 1–27 (includes a short discussion between IB and I. I. Rabi on the rationality of science); described as a ‘Summary of Remarks’, this text, under the title ‘The Lessons of History’, was in fact heavily corrected by IB before publication; repr. with revisions as ‘The Lessons of History’ in Joshua L. Cherniss and Steven B. Smith (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Isaiah Berlin (New York, forthcoming 2018: Cambridge University Press)

114‘A Note on Vico’s Concept of Knowledge’, in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Hayden V. White (eds), Giambattista Vico: An International Symposium (Baltimore, [1969]: Johns Hopkins Press), 371–7; repr. in New York Review of Books, 24 April 1969, 23–6, and AC trans. Spanish

  • Review
  • ~ Noether, Amiliana P., review of Tagliacozzo and White, American Historical Review 76 no. 2 (April 1971), 476–9

115‘One of the Boldest Innovators in the History of Human Thought’ (Vico), New York Times Magazine, 23 November 1969, 76–100; repr. in Ben Seligman (ed.), Molders of Modern Thought (Chicago, 1970: Quadrangle Books), and POI; trans. Spanish

116‘Reply to Orsini’, Journal of the History of Ideas 30 (1969), 91–5: a reply to G. N. G. Orsini, ‘Feuerbach’s Supposed Objection to Hegel’, ibid., 85–90; abstract in the Philosopher’s Index3 (1969), 282


117Foreword to R. D. Miller, Schiller and the Ideal of Freedom: A Study of Schiller’s Philosophical Works with Chapters on Kant (Oxford, 1970: Clarendon Press), v

118‘Benjamin Disraeli, Karl Marx, and the Search for Identity’, in Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 22 (1968–9) (London, 1970: Jewish Historical Society of England); repr. in Midstream 16 no. 7 (August-September 1970), 29–49, and AC; trans. French, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Spanish

119‘Weizmann as Exilarch’, in Chaim Weizmann as Leader (Jerusalem, 1970: Hebrew University of Jerusalem), 13–21; trans. Hebrew

  • Review
  • Reinharz, Jehuda, review of Chaim Weizmann as Leader, American Jewish Historical Quarterly 60 no. 1 (September 1970), 110–13


120Sir Maurice Bowra, 1898–1971 (Oxford, [1971]: Wadham College), 10 pp.; repr. as ‘Memorial Address in St Mary’s’ in Hugh Lloyd-Jones (ed.), Maurice Bowra (London, 1974: Duckworth), and as ‘Maurice Bowra’ in PI

121‘Georges Sorel’, Creighton Lecture, The Times Literary Supplement, 31 December 1971, 1617–22; repr. in expanded form in Chimen Abramsky (ed.), Essays in Honour of E. H. Carr (London, 1974: Macmillan), 3–35, and AC; trans. Hebrew, Spanish; see also 132

122‘The Question of Machiavelli’, New York Review of Books, 4 November 1971, 20–32; repr. of part of ‘The Originality of Machiavelli’, in Myron P. Gilmore (ed.), Studies on Machiavelli (Florence, 1972: Sansoni), 149–206; repr. in the Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Political Science, No 68813, and as Appendix II in Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince on The Art of Power(London, 2007: Duncan Baird Publishing), 222–61; full version repr. in John Dunn and Ian Harris (eds), Machiavelli (Cheltenham and Lyme, 1997: Edward Elgar), vol. 2, AC and PSM and trans. Lithuanian, Portuguese, Russian

123‘Randolph’, in Kay Halle (ed.), Randolph Churchill: The Young Unpretender (London, 1971: Heinemann), 278–9

124‘Tchaikovsky and Eugene Onegin’, Glyndebourne Festival Programme Book 1971, 58–63; repr. as ‘Tchaikovsky, Pushkin and Onegin’ in Musical Times 121 (1980), 163–8, and Eugene Onegin (Oxford University Opera Club programme) ([Oxford], 1992)

124a(with others) ‘George Seferis’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 16 December 1971, 42

124b‘Sir Isaiah Berlin OM replies to a letter from the Editor’, Jewish Chronicle, 12 November 1971, 35


125Fathers and Children: Turgenev and the Liberal Predicament, Romanes Lecture (Oxford, 1972: Clarendon Press; repr. with corrections 1973), 61 pp.; repr. in New York Review of Books, 18 October 1973, 39–44, 1 November 1973, 22–9, 15 November 1973, 9–11, as introduction to Ivan Turgenev, Fathers and Sons, trans. Rosemary Edmonds (Harmondsworth, 1975: Penguin), and in RT; excerpted as ‘The Liberal Predicament’ in Dialogue 11 no. 4 (1978), 90–5; trans. Japanese, Russian; see also 138

  • Reviews
  • [Freeborn, Richard,] ‘The Liberal Dilemma’, The Times Literary Supplement, 22 December 1972, 1553
  • Kelly, A. M., ’ “Fathers and Children” ’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 26 January 1973, 94 (followed by a reply from Freeborn)
  • Walker, Angus, Modern Language Review, 477–8

126Zionist Politics in Wartime Washington: A Fragment of Personal Reminiscence, Yaacov Herzog Memorial Lecture (Jerusalem, 1972: Hebrew University of Jerusalem), 61 pp.; excerpted in Barnet Litvinoff (ed.), The Essential Chaim Weizmann: The Man, the Statesman, the Scientist (London, 1982: Wei Nicolson); originally to have been reprinted in PI, but IB changed his mind; repr. in F; trans. Hebrew

127Foreword to Friedrich Meinecke, Historism: The Rise of a New Historical Outlook, trans. J. E. Anderson (London, 1972: Routledge and Kegan Paul), ix–xvi; repr. as ‘Meinecke and Historicism’ in POI

128‘The Bent Twig: A Note on Nationalism’, Foreign Affairs 51 (1972), 11–30; repr. in James F. Hoge, Jr, and Fareed Zakaria (eds), The American Encounter: The United States and the Making of the Modern World, Essays from 75 Years of ‘Foreign Affairs’ (New York, 1997: Basic Books), and CTH; trans. Arabic, French, German, Hungarian, Spanish

129‘Dr Jacob Herzog’, Jewish Chronicle, 14 April 1972, 28, 43; repr. as ‘Yaacov Herzog: a Tribute’ as preface to 126 and in Misha Louvish (ed.), A People that Dwells Alone: Speeches and Writings of Yaacov Herzog (London, 1995: Weidenfeld and Nicolson); trans. Hebrew

130‘Giambattista Vico’, Listener 88 (1972), 391–8; repr. as ‘Giambattista Vico: Man of Genius’ in TCE2; trans. Spanish

131‘History as we would like it’, Worldview 15 no. 7 (July 1972), 16

131aIntroductory remarks for Roy Jenkins, British Foreign Policy since 1945 (7th Thank-Offering to Britain Fund Lecture) (Oxford, 1972: Oxford University Press for the British Academy), 3

132‘Sorel’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 14 January 1972, 40; cf. 121

132a(with others) ‘In Memory of Cecil Roth’ (letter), Jewish Chronicle, 1 September 1972, 21

132b(with Kenneth Burke) ‘An Exchange on Machiavelli’ (letters), New York Review of Books, 6 April 1972, 36

132c‘I Love Zionism’ (letter to the editor, published in Hebrew translation), Ha’aretz, 17 November 1972, 26; response to Nathan Yellin-Mor


133‘Austin and the Early Beginnings of Oxford Philosophy’, in Essays on J. L. Austin (Oxford, 1973: Clarendon Press), 1–16; repr. in PI; trans. German

134‘The Counter-Enlightenment’, Dictionary of the History of Ideas (New York, 1968–73: Scribner’s), vol. 2 (1973), 100–12; repr. in AC and AC; trans. Estonian, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian

135‘A Nation Among Nations’, Jewish Chronicle, Colour Magazine, 4 May 1973, 28–34; excerpted as ‘Israel at 25’ in Jerusalem Post, 18 May 1973, magazine supplement, 7

136‘Notes on the Foundation of Wolfson College’, Lycidas 1 (1973), 2–4

137‘Mr Hamilton Fish Armstrong’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 28 April 1973, 16

138‘Fathers and Children’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 12 January 1973, 40; cf. 125

138aContribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Observer, 16 December 1973, 33


139The Divorce between the Sciences and the Humanities, 2nd Tykociner Memorial Lecture (Illinois, 1974: University of Illinois), 34 pp.; repr. in Salmagundi no. 27 (Summer/Fall 1974), 9–39, Robert Boyers and Peggy Boyers (eds), The Salmagundi Reader (Bloomington, 1983: Indiana University Press), CTH and PSM; trans. Italian, Polish

139a‘The Senate Foreign Relations Committee’ (Dispatch no. 292, British Embassy, Washington, to Foreign Office, London, 19 April 1943), in Thomas E. Hachey (ed.), ‘American Profiles on Capitol Hill: A Confidential Study for the British Foreign Office in 1943’, Wisconsin Magazine of History 57 no. 2 (Winter 1973–4), 141–53; in note 3 on p. 142 Hachey charmingly describes HF as ‘a fictional work’

139bProbable unattributed contributions to T. E. Hachey (ed.), Confidential Dispatches: Analyses of America by the British Ambassador, 1939–45 (Evanston, Illinois, 1974); IB’s disclaimer in a letter of 4 June 1974 to Arthur Schlesinger should not necessarily be taken at face value:

I have seen Mr Hachey’s book, and it contains only long despatches – not the weekly political summary which I used to have a hand in – I think I must have had something to do with these other things too, but not so very much – they must have been composed by people in my ‘section’ and I must have read them and passed them on, as my own were read and passed on by my superiors, William Hayter, Michael Wright and suchlike. At any rate, I recognised very little in them, and thought them not wildly interesting. Nor are my despatches, for that matter. If anyone digs them out and publishes them or any part of them, disappointment and boredom will ensue: such reputation as I acquired as a result of them will evaporate immediately.

139c‘Go there to find your identity’, Jewish Chronicle, 16 April 1974, supplement on 50th anniversary of the Friends of the Hebrew University, i–ii

140Contribution to Arthur Lehning in 1974 (Leiden, 1974: Brill), 3 pp.

141‘Mr C. E. Bohlen: Close Study of Soviet Leaders’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 11 January 1974, 16

141a‘Mr Raimund von Hofmannsthal’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 26 April 1974, 20; repr. in Christiane Zimmer and others, Raimund von Hofmannsthal: A Rosenkavalier 1906–1974, ed. Ivan Moffat (Reinbek, 1975: Rowolt), 27–8

141bContribution to ‘From Missolonghi to Apsley House – A Reappraisal of Byron’, Listener 91 (1974), 623–6

141cContribution to ‘I remember, I remember’, The Times Literary Supplement, 6 December 1974, 1370; repr. ibid., 11 November 2016, 38

141dContribution (excerpt from ‘The Russian Preoccupation with History’) to ‘Out of the Year’, Listener 92 (1974), 830


142John Petrov Plamenatz, 1912–1975 (Oxford, [1975]: All Souls College), 12 pp.; repr. in PI

142aForeword (on Avraham Harman) to Dov Noy and Issachar Ben-Ami (eds), Studies in the Cultural Life of the Jews in England (Jerusalem, 1975: Magnes Press, the Hebrew University), 7

143‘L’apoteosi della volontà romantica: la rivolta contro il tipo di un mondo ideale’, Lettere italiane 27 (1975), 44–68; original English version, ‘The Apotheosis of the Romantic Will: The Revolt against the Myth of an Ideal World’, published in CTH, repr. in PSM and trans. Latvian, Spanish

144‘Performances memorable and not so memorable’, Opera 26 (1975), 116–20

145Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 61 (1975), 71–81

146Speech at the Official Opening of Wolfson College, Oxford, 12 November 1974, Lycidas 3 (1975), 3–6

146a(unattributed) ‘Sir John Wheeler-Bennett’ (obituary), The Times, 10 December 1975, 19

147‘Sir John Wheeler-Bennett’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 13 December 1975, 16

147a(with others) ‘Writers and the Closed Shop’ (letter), The Times Literary Supplement, 25 April 1975, 441


148Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas (London, 1976: Hogarth Press; New York, 1976: Viking; New York, 1977: Vintage Books; London, 1980: Chatto and Windus; London, 1992: Hogarth Press) (revised versions of 79, 98 and 99, with a new introduction); repr. in revised form in TCE; trans. Catalan, French, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese

  • Reviews
  • Kelley, Donald, ‘Conoisseurs of Causes’, The Times Literary Supplement, 9 July 1976, 839
  • Kessler, Eckhard, Journal of Philosophy 75 no. 5 (May 1978), 264–70
  • Luckett, Richard, ‘A Saving Grace’, Spectator, 13 March 1976, 21
  • MacIntyre, Alasdair, Listener 95 (1976), 251
  • Momigliano, A., ‘On the Pioneer Trail’, review article, The New York Review of Books, 11 November 1976
  • Ryan, Alan, ‘Inside Knowledge’, New Statesman, 27 February 1976, 261
  • Scouten, A. H., Comparative Literature Studies 15 (1978)
  • Struever, Nancy S. (also reviews James H. Stam, Inquiries into the Origin of Language: The Fate of a Question), MLN 91 no. 6 (December 1976), 1625–7
  • Swoboda, Wolfram, New Boston Review 2 no. 2 (Fall 1976), 14; very critical

149Contribution to John Jolliffe (ed.), Auberon Herbert: A Composite Portrait (Tisbury, 1976: Compton Russell), 9–14; repr. as ‘Auberon Herbert’ in PI

150‘Comment on Professor Verene’s Paper’ [Donald Phillip Verene, ‘Vico’s Philosophy of Imagination’, Social Research 43 (1976), 410–26], Social Research 43 (1976), 426–9; repr. in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and others (eds), Vico and Contemporary Thought (London, 1976: Macmillan); trans. Spanish

151Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 62 (1976), 85–94

152‘Vico and the Ideal of the Enlightenment’, Social Research 43 (1976), 640–53; repr. in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and others (eds), Vico and Contemporary Thought (London, 1976: Macmillan), and in AC without last section, ‘The Workings of Providence’ (which is repr. in TCE2); trans. Italian, Polish, Spanish

152aLetter dated 11 July 1973 to Douglas Villiers, in Douglas Villiers (ed.), Next Year in Jerusalem: Jews in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1976: Viking; London, 1976, Harrap), 106 (a response to Arthur Koestler, ‘The Vital Choice’, ibid., 98–105); repr. at B 538–9

152b‘Vico’s Doctrines’ (letter), History Today 26 (1976), 829–30


153Sir Harry d’Avigdor Goldsmid, 1906–1976 ([London, 1977]: privately printed), 6 pp.

153aContribution to Mstislav Rostropovich: 50th Birthday Gala Concert, concert programme for Rostropovich’s 50th birthday concert at the Royal Festival Hall, 6 March 1977

154‘Hume and the Sources of German Anti-Rationalism’, in G. P. Morice (ed.), David Hume: Bicentennial Papers (Edinburgh, 1977: Edinburgh University Press), 93–116; repr. in AC

155‘Old Russia’, review of Marvin Lyons, Russia in Original Photographs 1860–1920, ed. Andrew Wheatcroft, and Kyril FitzLyon and Tatiana Browning, Before the Revolution: A View of Russia under the Last Tsar, Guardian, 24 November 1977, 14

156Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 63 (1977), 1–11

156aContribution to ‘Reputations Revisited’, The Times Literary Supplement, 21 January 1977, 66


Note: Items 157, 158, 166 and 167 were originally published under the series title Selected Writings. In later editions this collective identity was dropped.

157Russian Thinkers, ed. Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly, with an introduction by Aileen Kelly (London, 1978: Hogarth Press; New York, 1978: Viking; Harmondsworth and New York, 1979: Penguin; ) (reprints of 30, 44, 56, 57, 76, 82, 125); trans. Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese (in part), Polish, Portuguese, Spanish

  • Reviews
  • Hingley, Ronald, ‘Narcissists’, Spectator, 7 January 1978, 20
  • Kempski, Jürgen von, review of Russische Denker (German trans.), Merkur 36 no. 4 (April 1982), 417
  • Marko, Kurt, review (in English) of Russische Denker (German trans.), Studies in Soviet Thought 26 no. 1 (July 1983), 77–80
  • Muchnic, Helen, ‘ The Undefeated’, New York Review of Books, 15 June 1978, 21–4
  • Young, George M., Jr, ‘Isaiah Berlin’s Russian Thinkers’, Review of Politics 41 no. 4 (October 1979), 596–8
  • West, Rebecca, Sunday Telegraph, 15 January 1978, 14

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