Douglas Rutherford Bibliography Apa

Ernest Rutherford is the father of nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics. He discovered and named the atomic nucleus, the proton, the alpha particle, and the beta particle. He discovered the concept of nuclear half-lives and achieved the first deliberate transformation of one element into another, fulfilling one of the ancient passions of the alchemists.

Beginnings

Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in the village of Brightwater on New Zealand’s South Island. His father, James Rutherford, was a farmer from Scotland and his mother, Martha Thompson, was a schoolteacher from England.

Ernest was the fourth of the 12 children his parents brought up in New Zealand, and he was blessed with both high intelligence and a talent for sports, particularly rugby football. He read his first science book at the age of 10, and was enthralled by what he learned, carefully performing the experiments the book suggested.

He attended high school at Nelson College in the small town of Nelson, where his boarding fees were funded by a scholarship.

At age 18 he left for the city of Christchurch on a scholarship to Canterbury College, now the University of Canterbury.

In 1893 he graduated with first class honors in both mathematics and physical science.

In 1895 he obtained a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and geology from Canterbury College and spent a short time working as a schoolteacher. He won an overseas study scholarship and decided to go to the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom to work in J. J. Thomson’s laboratory.

Cambridge, Montreal, Manchester and back to Cambridge

Rutherford arrived in Cambridge in 1895, age 24, where he was made to feel very welcome by J. J. Thomson and his wife Rose.

Rutherford had already invented a radio receiver in New Zealand. He improved it at Cambridge, where he built a world-record-breaking receiver capable of detecting radio waves at half-a-mile. However, the battle to develop radio was one he would quickly lose to Guglielmo Marconi. Rutherford did not mind in the least. His radio work was not as intellectually stimulating as other work he was doing on radioactivity and the effects of X-rays on gases.

Rutherford’s research work was remarkably advanced, impressing Thomson enormously. In 1898, when a chair in physics came up at Montreal’s McGill University, Thomson recommended Rutherford should be appointed to it.

“I have never had a student with more enthusiasm or ability for original research than Mr. Rutherford.”
Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

In 1898 Rutherford sailed to Canada where, age 27, he became a professor. At McGill he carried out the work that led to his 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

In 1907, after nine years at McGill, Rutherford sailed back to the UK to take the University of Manchester’s Chair of Physics.

Rutherford’s final move came in 1919 when J. J. Thomson retired. Rutherford, now age 48, replaced Thomson as the Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge.

Rutherford’s Most Significant Contributions to Science

Discovery of alpha and beta radiation

Starting in 1898 Rutherford studied the radiation emitted by uranium. He discovered two different types of radiation, which he named alpha and beta.

By allowing radiation from uranium to pass through an increasing number of layers of metal foil, he discovered that:

  • beta particles have greater penetrating power than alpha rays

By the direction of their movement in a magnetic field, he deduced that:

  • alpha particles are positively charged

By measuring the ratio of mass to charge, he formed the hypothesis that:

  • alpha particles are helium ions carrying a 2+ charge

With his co-worker, Frederick Soddy, Rutherford came to the conclusion that:

  • alpha particles are atomic in nature
  • alpha particles are produced by the disintegration of larger atoms and so atoms are not, as everyone had believed, indestructible
  • when large atoms emit alpha particles they become slightly smaller atoms, which means radioactive elements must change into other elements when they decay

Soddy, who would himself later win a Nobel Prize, was exhausted by the effort of keeping up with Rutherford:

“I abandoned all to follow him (Rutherford). For more than two years, scientific life became hectic to a degree rare in the lifetime of an individual, rare perhaps in the lifetime of an institution.”
Frederick Soddy, 1877 to 1956
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

Rutherford coined the terms alpha, beta, and gamma for the three most common types of nuclear radiation. We still use these terms today. (Gamma radiation was discovered by Paul Villard in Paris, France in 1900.)

Rutherford began his investigation of alpha and beta radiation in the same year that Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the new radioactive elements polonium and radium.

“I have to keep going, as there are always people on my track. I have to publish my present work as rapidly as possible in order to keep in the race. The best sprinters in this road of investigation are Becquerel and the Curies.”

In 1907 Rutherford discovered that radioactive elements have half-lives – he coined the term half-life period to identify the phenomenon.

Rutherford was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances.”

The age of planet Earth and radiometric dating

Rutherford realized that Earth’s helium supply is largely produced by the decay of radioactive elements. He devised a method of dating rocks relating their age to the amount of helium present in them.

Based on the fact that our planet is still volcanically active, Lord Kelvin had indicated Earth’s age could be no greater than 400 million years old. He said Earth could be older than this only if some new source of energy could be found that was heating it internally.

Rutherford identified the new source – the energy released by radioactive decay of elements.

He also began the science of radiometric dating – using the products of radioactive decay to find out how old things are.

“Lord Kelvin had limited the age of the Earth, provided no new source (of energy) was discovered. That prophetic utterance refers to what we are now considering tonight, radium!”

Discovery of the atomic nucleus

After his move to the University of Manchester, Rutherford and two of his researchers – Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden – carried out in 1909 one of the landmark experiments in science – the gold foil experiment.

Rutherford began the experiment because he was puzzled that fewer alpha particles than expected from a sample of radium were reaching a new detector in his laboratory. The only medium the particles had to travel through was a small amount of air. Rutherford thought the huge amount of energy carried by alpha particles should have allowed them to travel through a small amount of air undisturbed, with no deflection.

He gave Geiger and Marsden the task of investigating to what extent alpha particles would be deflected from their usual straight-line path by passing through a very thin sheet of gold foil.

Geiger and Marsden used a sample of radium to provide a stream of alpha particles which passed through the gold foil. Where the alpha particles ended up was recorded electrically.

The results were remarkable. If gold were a smooth substance on the atomic scale, as it had been thought to be, a slight deflection of alpha particles would have been expected. In fact, most alpha particles shot straight through the gold without deflection, but a few were deflected enormously, some even ‘bouncing’ straight back from the gold. Rutherford was utterly amazed by this. Famously, he likened it to firing a battleship’s guns at tissue paper and discovering some of the shells were bouncing back from the tissue paper.

Rutherford explained the effect by proposing a new model for the atom, replacing the plum pudding model of his old mentor J. J. Thomson.

His new model required atoms to have a small, very dense core. With this step, guided by his experimental data, Rutherford had discovered the atomic nucleus.

J. J. Thomson had modeled the atom as a sphere in which positive charge and mass were evenly spread. Electrons orbited within the positive sphere. This was called the plum pudding model.

The results of the gold foil experiment allowed Rutherford to build a more accurate model of the atom, in which nearly all of the mass was concentrated in a tiny, dense nucleus. Most of the atom’s volume was empty space. The nucleus was like a fly floating in a football stadium – remembering of course that the fly was much heavier than the stadium! Electrons orbited at some distance from the nucleus. This was called the Rutherford model. It resembles planets orbiting a star.

Although Rutherford had received a Nobel Prize for his earlier work, his discovery of the atomic nucleus was probably his greatest achievement.

A 26-year-old Niels Bohr, who was spending time as a research student in Rutherford’s laboratory in 1912, was intrigued by Rutherford’s model of the atom. He could see that in terms of classical physics, the separation of charge into positive nucleus and orbiting electrons was unstable. He explored the implications of such an atom, leading directly to the first quantum model of the atom – the Rutherford-Bohr atom.

Rutherford and Bohr became the best of friends; they and their wives often vacatioed together in later years.

“Rutherford is a man you can rely on; he comes regularly and enquires how things are going and talks about the smallest details – Rutherford is such an outstanding man and really interested in the work of all the people around him.”
Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Discovery of nuclear reactions

Rutherford achieved the first deliberate transformation of one element into another. In 1919 he converted nitrogen atoms into oxygen atoms by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles. This nuclear reaction was written:

14N + α → 17O + 1H

Discovery of the proton

When he found hydrogen produced in the nuclear reaction above, Rutherford began to suspect that the hydrogen nucleus may actually be a fundamental particle, a building block of all atomic nuclei.

He formalized this in 1920 by giving this particle a name: the proton. The first nuclear reaction could now be rewritten:

14N + α → 17O + proton

Predicting the existence of the neutron

Rutherford carried out calculations of the stability of atomic nuclei. He found that unless some neutral particle were added to the nucleus, the repulsion of the positively charged protons would cause nuclei to fly apart. In 1920 he named this hypothetical particle the neutron.

James Chadwick, Rutherford’s Assistant Director of Research, discovered the neutron in 1932, proving its existence by experiment.

Some Personal Details and the End

Rutherford did not exactly conform to the scientific stereotype. He was a direct, no-nonsense man, who spoke his mind. He was not overly concerned with his appearance; some people mistook the great scientist for a farmer!

He was well-known for his limitless reserves of energy and enthusiasm, which left a number of his workers exhausted.

“Rutherford’s enthusiasm and abounding vigor naturally affected us all. To work in the laboratory in the evening was the rule rather than the exception, particularly for us Germans, whose stay in Montreal was limited… He had a great, hearty laugh which echoed through the whole laboratory.”
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

In summer 1900, two years after moving to Montreal, Rutherford sailed for New Zealand to marry Mary Georgina Newton, whom he had become engaged to while living in Christchurch. They had one child, Eileen Mary, born in 1901. When she was 20, Eileen married the renowned physicist Ralph H. Fowler. Eileen died in 1930, nine days after giving birth to her fourth child. Rutherford and his wife outlived their daughter, taking solace in their grandchildren, all of whom became academics.

Rutherford visited his research workers daily, critical or praising of the work their work, listening to their problems, making suggestions. He could be blunt when he thought people were doing things wrongly, but his workers revered him because they knew that above all else Rutherford was pushing hard on the frontiers of human knowledge and he always gave them full credit for their research.

Rutherford was an inspiring man and, as had been the case with J. J. Thomson, an unusually large number of his research workers went on to win Nobel Prizes, including James Chadwick, Cecil Powell, Niels Bohr, Otto Hahn, Frederick Soddy, John Cockcroft, Ernest Walton and Edward Appleton.

His booming voice was the loudest many of his colleagues had ever heard. Geoffrey Fellows, a fellow lecturer at Cambridge, wrote:

We were a polite society and I expected to lead a quiet life teaching mechanics and listening to my senior colleagues gently but obliquely poking fun at one another. This dream of somnolent peace vanished very quickly when Rutherford came to Cambridge. Rutherford was the only person I have met who immediately impressed me as a great man. He was a big man and made a big noise and he seemed to enjoy every minute of his life. I remember that when transatlantic broadcasting first came in, Rutherford told us at a dinner in Hall how he had spoken into a microphone to America and had been heard all over the continent. One of the bolder of our Fellows said: “Surely you did not need to use apparatus for that.”
Geoffrey Fellows, 1871 to 1937

During his lifetime, Rutherford received many honors. In addition to his Nobel Prize, he was knighted in 1914, becoming Sir Ernest Rutherford, and then made a British lord, receiving the title Baron Rutherford of Nelson in 1931.

Ernest Rutherford died age 66 of intestinal paralysis on October 19, 1937. His ashes were buried in the Nave of Westminster Abbey, joining other science greats such as Isaac Newton, Lord Kelvin, Charles Darwin, and Charles Lyell. In 1940 the ashes of his friend and former boss J. J. Thomson were laid to rest with Rutherford and the other scientists.

Element 104 is named Rutherfordium in his honor.

“Even the casual reader of Rutherford’s papers must be deeply impressed by his power in experiment… He was, in my opinion, the greatest experimental physicist since Faraday.”
James Chadwick, 1891 to 1974
Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

Author of this page: The Doc
Images of scientists on this page digitally enhanced and colorized by this website. © All rights reserved.

Cite this Page

Please use the following MLA compliant citation:

"Ernest Rutherford." Famous Scientists. famousscientists.org. 30 Jul. 2015. Web. <www.famousscientists.org/ernest-rutherford/>.

Further Reading
The Collected Papers of Lord Rutherford of Nelson, Volume 1
Routledge, 2014

Great Physicists
William H. Cropper
Oxford University Press, 2001

Sir Ernest Rutherford (Baron Rutherford of Nelson, O.M., F.R.S.)
from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
edited by A. H. McLintock, 1966

Please note that due to reasons of space, references to studies reviewed in clinical evidence reviews are in Appendix 17.232

  • Abas M. Depression and anxiety among older Caribbean people in the UK: screening, unmet need and the provision of appropriate services. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1996;11:377–382.

  • Abas MA, Phillips C, Carter J, et al. Culturally sensitive validation of screening questionnaires for depression in older African–Caribbean people living in south London. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1998;173:249–254. [PubMed: 9926102]

  • Abbass A, Sheldon A, Gyra J, et al. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for DSM–IV personality disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2008;196:211–216. [PubMed: 18340256]

  • Adli M, Baethge C, Heinz A, et al. Is dose escalation of antidepressants a rational strategy after a medium-dose treatment has failed? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2005;255:387–400. [PubMed: 15868067]

  • AGREE Collaboration. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project. Quality and Safety in Health Care. 2003;12:18–23. [PMC free article: PMC1743672] [PubMed: 12571340]

  • Ahn H, Wampold BE. Where oh where are the specific ingredients? A meta-analysis of component studies in counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2001;48:251–257.

  • Akiskal HS. A developmental perspective on recurrent mood disorders: a review of studies in man. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1986;22:579–586. [PubMed: 3797565]

  • Almond S, Healey A. Mental health and absence from work. Work, Employment and Society. 2003;17:731–742.

  • Altman D, Bland M. Statistics notes: Diagnostic tests 2: predictive values. British Medical Journal. 1994;309:102. [PMC free article: PMC2540558] [PubMed: 8038641]

  • Altman D, Bland M. Statistics notes: Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity. British Medical Journal. 1994;308:1552. [PMC free article: PMC2540489] [PubMed: 8019315]

  • Altshuler LL, Bauer M, Frye MA, et al. Does thyroid supplementation accelerate tricyclic antidepressant response? A review and meta-analysis of the literature. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;158:1617–1622. [PubMed: 11578993]

  • American College of Sports Medicine. Guidelines for Graded Exercise Testing and Exercise Prescription. Madison, Wisconsin: American College of Sports Medicine; 1980.

  • Anderson IM, Edwards JG. Guidelines for choice of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in depressive illness. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2001;7:170–180.

  • Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, Deakin JF. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 1993 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2000;14:3–20. [PubMed: 10757248]

  • Anderson IM, Ferrier IN, Baldwin RC, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2000 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2008;22:343–396. [PubMed: 18413657]

  • Andrews G, Jenkins R, editors. Management of Mental Disorders (UK edn, vol. 1). Sydney: WHO Collaborating Centre for Mental Health and Substance Misuse; 1999.

  • Andrews G, Anderson TM, Slade T, et al. Classification of anxiety and depressive disorders: problems and solutions. Depression and Anxiety. 2008;25:274–281. [PubMed: 18415950]

  • Anghelescu IG, Kohnen R, Szegedi A, et al. Comparison of hypericum extract WS 5570 and paroxetine in ongoing treatment after recovery from an episode of moderate to severe depression: results from a randomised multi-centre study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006;39:213–219. [PubMed: 17124643]

  • Angst J. Severity of depression and benzodiazepine co-medication in relationship to efficacy of antidepressants in acute trials: a meta-analysis of moclobemide trials. Human Psychopharmacology. 1993;8:401–407.

  • Angst J, Merikangas KR. Multi-dimensional criteria for the diagnosis of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001;62:7–15. [PubMed: 11172869]

  • Angst J, Preisig M. Course of a clinical cohort of unipolar, bipolar and schizoaffective patients. Results of a prospective study from 1959 to 1985. Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie und Psychiatrie. 1995;146:5–16. [PubMed: 7792568]

  • Angst J, Gamma A, Benazzi F, et al. Melancholia and atypical depression in the Zurich study: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, course, comorbidty and personality. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2007;115(Suppl 433):72–84. [PubMed: 17280573]

  • APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3. Washington, DC: APA; 1980. DSM–III.

  • APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4. Washington, DC: APA; 1994. DSM–IV.

  • APA. Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Washington, DC: APA; 2000.

  • APA. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (revision) American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157(Suppl 4):1–45. [PubMed: 10767867]

  • APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: APA; 2000. (4th edn Text Revision) (DSM–IV-TR)

  • Aragones E, Pinol JL, Labad A. The overdiagnosis of depression in non-depressed patients in primary care. Family Practice. 2006;23:363–368. [PubMed: 16461446]

  • Aronson R, Offman HJ, Joffe RT, et al. Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1996;53:842–848. [PubMed: 8792761]

  • Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Kerse N. Effect of the addition of a ‘help’ question to two screening questions on specificity for diagnosis of depression in general practice: diagnostic validation study. British Medical Journal. 2005;331:884–886. [PMC free article: PMC1255798] [PubMed: 16166106]

  • Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry. Edronax (reboxetine) SPC. Compendium of Data Sheets and Summaries of Product Characteristics. 2003. SPC available at: http://www​.medicines​.org.uk/EMC/medicine​/8386/SPC/Edronax+4mg+Tablets/

  • Avery D, Winokur G. Mortality in depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1976;33:1029–1037. [PubMed: 962487]

  • Baca E, Garcia-Garcia M, Porras-Chavarino A. Gender differences in treatment response to sertraline versus imipramine in patients with nonmelancholic depressive disorders. Progressive Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biology Psychiatry. 2004;28:57–65. [PubMed: 14687858]

  • Badamgarav E, Weingarten SR, Henning JM, et al. Effectiveness of disease management programs in depression: a systematic review. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;160:2080–2090. [PubMed: 14638573]

  • Baer RA. Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2003;10:125–143.

  • Bailine SH, Rifkin A, Kayne E, et al. Comparison of bifrontal and bitemporal ECT for major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157:121–123. [PubMed: 10618025]

  • Baldomero EB, Ubago JG, Cercós CL, et al. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study. Depression and Anxiety. 2005;22:68–76. [PubMed: 16094658]

  • Baldwin DS, Cooper JA, Huusom AK, et al. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, flexible-dose study to evaluate the tolerability, efficacy and effects of treatment discontinuation with escitalopram and paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder. International Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2006;21:159–169. [PubMed: 16528138]

  • Baldwin DS, Stein DJ, Dolberg OT, et al. How long should a trial of escitalopram treatment be in patients with major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder or social anxiety disorder? An exploration of the randomised controlled trial database. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 2009;24:269–275. [PubMed: 19334042]

  • Ballard C, Bannister C, Solis M, et al. The prevalence, associations and symptoms of depression amongst dementia sufferers. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1996;36:135–144. [PubMed: 8821316]

  • Barber JP, Crits-Christoph P, Luborsky L. Effects of therapist adherence and competence on patient outcome in brief dynamic therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1996;64:619–622. [PubMed: 8698958]

  • Barber JP, Gallop R, Crits-Christoph P, et al. The role of therapist adherence, therapist competence, and the alliance in predicting outcome of individual drug counseling: results from the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Psychotherapy Research. 2006;16:229–240.

  • Barbey JT, Roose SP. SSRI safety in overdose. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1998;59(Suppl 15):42–48. [PubMed: 9786310]

  • Barbosa L, Berk M, Vorster M. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of augmentation with lamotrigine or placebo in patients concomitantly treated with fluoxetine for resistant major depressive episodes. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64:403–407. [PubMed: 12716240]

  • Barbui C, Hotopf M. Amitriptyline v. the rest: still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;178:129–144. [PubMed: 11157426]

  • Barbui C, Esposito E, Cipriani A. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of suicide: a systematic review of observational studies. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2009;180:291–297. [PMC free article: PMC2630355] [PubMed: 19188627]

  • Barkow K, Heun R, Wittchen HU, et al. Mixed anxiety-depression in a 1 year follow-up study: shift to other diagnoses or remission? Journal of Affective Disorders. 2004;79:235–239. [PubMed: 15023500]

  • Barrett JE, Williams JW, Oxman TE, et al. The treatment effectiveness project. A comparison of the effectiveness of paroxetine, problem-solving therapy, and placebo in the treatment of minor depression and dysthymia in primary care patients: background and research plan. General Hospital Psychiatry. 1999;21:260–273. [PubMed: 10514950]

  • Barrett JE, Williams JW Jr, Oxman TE, et al. Treatment of dysthymia and minor depression in primary care: a randomized trial in patients aged 18 to 59 years. Journal of Family Practice. 2001;50:405–412. [PubMed: 11350703]

  • Bauer MS, Dunner DL. Validity of seasonal pattern as a modifier for recurrent mood disorders for DSM–IV. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 1993;34:159–170. [PubMed: 8339533]

  • Bauer M, Whybrow PC, Angst J, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, Part 1: Acute and continuation treatment of major depressive disorder. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 2002;3:5–43. [PubMed: 12479086]

  • Bauer M, Whybrow PC, Angst J, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, Part 2: Maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder and treatment of chronic depressive disorders and subthreshold depressions. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 2002;3:69–86. [PubMed: 12479080]

  • Beck AT. The past and future of cognitive therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. 1997;6:276–284. [PMC free article: PMC3330473] [PubMed: 9292441]

  • Beck AT. The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;165:969–977. [PubMed: 18628348]

  • Beck AT, Beck JS. The Personality Belief Questionnaire. University of Pennsylvania; 1991.

  • Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, et al. An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1961;4:561–571. [PubMed: 13688369]

  • Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, et al. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Wiley; 1979.

  • Beck AT, Steer A, Brown GK. Beck Depression Inventory Manual. 2. San Antonio, Texas: The Psychological Corporation; 1996.

  • Beck AT, Guth D, Steer RA, et al. Screening for major depression disorders in medical inpatients with the Beck Depression Inventory for primary care. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1997;35:785–791. [PubMed: 9256522]

  • Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. BDI-Fast Screen for Medical Patients: Manual. San Antonio, Texas: The Psychological Corporation; 2000.

  • Beck JS. Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: Guilford Press; 1995.

  • Beekman AFT, Copeland JRM, Prince MJ. Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999;174:307–311. [PubMed: 10533549]

  • Benedicte Á, Arellano J, De Cock E, et al. Economic evaluation of duloxetine versus serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine XR in treating major depressive disorder in Scotland. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2010;120:94–104. [PubMed: 19497623]

  • Benkert O, Szegedi A, Wetzel H, et al. 233233. This is also the reference for Benkert et al., 1997 (2nd cf). Dose escalation vs. continued doses of paroxetine and maprotiline: a prospective study in depressed out-patients with inadequate treatment response. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1997;95:288–296. [PubMed: 9150822]

  • Bennett KJ, Torrance GW, Boyle MH, et al. Cost-utility analysis in depression: the McSad utility measure for depression health states. Psychiatric Services. 2000;51:1171–1176. [PubMed: 10970923]

  • Berlanga C, Flores-Ramos M. Different gender response to serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants. A comparative study of the efficacy of citalopram and reboxetine. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2006;95:119–123. [PubMed: 16782204]

  • Berlin JA. Does blinding of readers affect the results of meta-analyses? Lancet. 1997;350:185–186. [PubMed: 9250191]

  • Bhugra D, Cochrane R. Psychiatry in a multi-ethnic context, Psychiatry in Multicultural Britain. Bhugra D, Cochrane R, editors. London: Gaskell; 2001.

  • Bhui K, Bhugra D, Goldberg D. Cross-cultural validity of the Amritsar Depression Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire amongst English and Punjabi primary care attenders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2000;35:248–254. [PubMed: 10939423]

  • Bhui K, Bhugra D, Goldberg D, et al. Cultural influences on the prevalence of common mental disorders, general practitioners’ assessments and help-seeking among Punjabi and English people visiting their general practitioner. Psychological Medicine. 2001;31:815–825. [PubMed: 11459379]

  • Bhui K, Stansfeld S, Hull S, et al. Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services in the UK. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;182:105–116. [PubMed: 12562737]

  • Biddle L, Donovan JL, Gunnell D, et al. Young adults’ perceptions of GPs as a help source for mental distress: a qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice. 2006;56:924–931. [PMC free article: PMC1934052] [PubMed: 17132380]

  • Biddle S, Fox K, Edmund L. Physical Activity in Primary Care in England. London: Health Education Authority; 1994.

  • Black N. Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of health care. British Medical Journal. 1996;312:1215–1218. [PMC free article: PMC2350940] [PubMed: 8634569]

  • Blackburn IM, Euson K, Bishop S. A two-year naturalistic follow-up of depressed patients treated with cognitive therapy, pharmacotherapy and a combination of both. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1986;10:67–75. [PubMed: 2939125]

  • Blashki TG, Mowbray R, Davies B. Controlled trial of amitriptyline in general practice. British Medical Journal. 1971;1:133–138. [PMC free article: PMC1795147] [PubMed: 4923928]

  • Blom MB, Spinhoven P, Hoffman T, et al. Severity and duration of depression, not personality factors, predict short term outcome in the treatment of major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2007;104:119–126. [PubMed: 17467059]

  • Boeck V, Overo KF, Svendsen O. Studies on acute toxicity and drug levels of citalopram in the dog. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1982;50:169–174. [PubMed: 6953747]

  • Bogetto F, Bellino S, Revello RB, et al. Discontinuation syndrome in dysthymic patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a clinical investigation. CNS Drugs. 2002;16:273–283. [PubMed: 11945110]

  • Bollini P, Pampallona S, Tibaldi G, et al. Effectiveness of antidepressants. Meta-analysis of dose-effect relationships in randomised clinical trials. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999;174:297–303. [PubMed: 10533547]

  • Bordin ES. The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 1979;16:252–260.

  • Borghi J, Guest JF. Economic impact of using mirtazapine compared to amitriptyline and fluoxetine in the treatment of moderate and severe depression in the UK. European Psychiatry. 2000;15:378–387. [PubMed: 11004733]

  • Bostwick JM, Pankratz VS. Affective disorders and suicide risk: a reexamination. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157:1925–1932. [PubMed: 11097952]

  • Bower P, Gilbody S. Stepped care in psychological therapies: access, effectiveness and efficiency: narrative literature review. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2005;186:11–17. [PubMed: 15630118]

  • Bower P, Sibbald B. On-site mental health workers in primary care: effects on professional practice, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000. Available at: http://www​.cochrane.org​/reviews/en/ab000532.html. [PubMed: 10908476]

  • Bower P, Byford S, Sibbald B, et al. Randomised controlled trial of non-directive counselling, cognitive-behaviour therapy, and usual general practitioner care for patients with depression. II: Cost-effectiveness. British Medical Journal. 2000;321:1389–1392. [PMC free article: PMC27543] [PubMed: 11099285]

  • Bower P, Rowland N, Hardy R. The clinical effectiveness of counselling in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine. 2003;33:203–215. [PubMed: 12622300]

  • Bower P, Gilbody S, Richards D, et al. Collaborative care for depression in primary care. Making sense of a complex intervention: systematic review and meta-regression. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2006;189:484–493. [PubMed: 17139031]

  • Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 2006;3:77–101.

  • Bridges KW, Goldberg DP. Somatic presentations of depressive illness in primary care, The Presentation of Depression: Current Approaches. Freeling P, Downey LJ, Malkin JC, editors. London: Royal College of General Practitioners; 1987. pp. 9–11.

  • Briggs AH. Handling uncertainty in cost-effectiveness models. Pharmacoeconomics. 2000;17:479–500. [PubMed: 10977389]

  • British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. British National Formulary (BNF 45). London: British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 2003.

  • British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. British National Formulary (BNF 56). London: British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 2008.

  • British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. British National Formulary (BNF 57). London: British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 2009.

  • Brosan L, Moore R, Reynolds S. Factors associated with competence in cognitive therapists. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2007;35:179–190.

  • Brotman MA, Strunk DR, DeRubeis RJ. Therapeutic alliance and adherence in cognitive therapy for depression. 2009 In preparation.

  • Brown G, Harris T. The Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. London: Tavistock Publications; 1978.

  • Brown TA, Campbell LA, Lehman CL, et al. Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM–IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2001;110:585–599. [PubMed: 11727948]

  • Bryant MJ, Simons AD, Thase ME. Therapist skill and patient variables in homework compliance: controlling an uncontrolled variable in cognitive therapy outcome research. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1999;23:381–399.

  • Buckley NA, McManus PR. Fatal toxicity of serotoninergic and other antidepressant drugs: analysis of UK mortality data. British Medical Journal. 2002;325:1332–1333. [PMC free article: PMC137809] [PubMed: 12468481]

  • Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Whyte IM, et al. Greater toxicity in overdose of dothiepin than of other tricyclic antidepressants. Lancet. 1994;343:159–162. [PubMed: 7904010]

  • Bucknall C, Brooks D, Curry PV, et al. Mianserin and trazodone for cardiac patients with depression. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1988;33:565–569. [PubMed: 3284752]

  • Burns DD. Feeling Good: the New Mood Therapy. New York: William Morrow; 1980.

  • Burns DD, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Therapeutic empathy and homework compliance in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1992;60:441–449. [PubMed: 1619098]

  • Burroughs H, Morley M, Lovell K, et al. ‘Justifiable depression’: how health professionals and patients view late-life depression; a qualitative study. Family Practice. 2006;23:369–377. [PubMed: 16476699]

  • Byford S, Knapp M, Greenshields J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of brief cognitive behaviour therapy versus treatment as usual in recurrent deliberate self-harm: a decision-making approach. Psychological Medicine. 2003;33:977–986. [PubMed: 12946082]

  • Cahill J, Barkham M, Hardy G, et al. Outcomes of patients completing and not completing cognitive therapy for depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2003;42:133–143. [PubMed: 12828803]

  • Cameron DE. The day hospital. An experimental form of hospitalisation for psychiatric patients. Modern Hospital. 1947;68:60–62. [PubMed: 20259355]

  • Campbell M, Fitzpatrick R, Haines A, et al. Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. British Medical Journal. 2000;321:694–696. [PMC free article: PMC1118564] [PubMed: 10987780]

  • Carcone B, Vial T, Chaillet N, et al. Symptomatic bradycardia caused by mianserin at therapeutic doses. Human Experimental Toxicology. 1991;10:383–384. [PubMed: 1683554]

  • Carels R, Darby L, Cacciapaglia H, et al. Applying a stepped-care approach to the treatment of obesity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2005;59:375–383. [PubMed: 16310019]

  • Carney RM, Freedland KE, Sheline YI, et al. Depression and coronary heart disease: a review for cardiologists. Clinical Cardiology. 1997;20:196–200. [PubMed: 9068903]

  • Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, et al. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science. 2003;301:386–389. [PubMed: 12869766]

  • Cassano P, Fava M. Depression and public health: an overview. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2002;53:849–857. [PubMed: 12377293]

  • Catalano G, Catalano MC, Epstein MA, et al. QTc interval prolongation associated with citalopram overdose: a case report and literature review. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 2001;24:158–162. [PubMed: 11391127]

  • Chew-Graham CA, May CR, Cole H, et al. The burden of depression in primary care: a qualitative investigation of general practitioners’ constructs of depressed people in primary care. Primary Care Psychiatry. 2000;6:137–141.

  • Chew-Graham CA, Bashir C, Chantler K, et al. South Asian women, psychological distress and self-harm: lessons for primary care trusts. Health and Social Care in the Community. 2002;10:339–347. [PubMed: 12390220]

  • Chew-Graham CA, Lovell K, Roberts C, et al. A randomized controlled trial to test the feasibility of a collaborative care model for the management of depression in older people. British Journal of General Practice. 2007;57:364–369. [PMC free article: PMC2047010] [PubMed: 17504586]

  • Chew-Graham CA, Chamberlain E, Turner K, et al. General practitioners’ and health visitors’ views on the diagnosis and management of postnatal depression: a qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice. 2008;58:169–176. [PMC free article: PMC2249792] [PubMed: 18399021]

  • Chong SA, Mythily S, Mahendran R. Cardiac effects of psychotropic drugs. Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2001;30:625–631. [PubMed: 11817292]

  • Christensen H, Griffiths KM, Korten A. Web-based cognitive behaviour therapy: analysis of site usage and changes in depression and anxiety scores. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2002;4:e3. [PMC free article: PMC1761927] [PubMed: 11956035]

  • Christensen H, Griffiths KM, Jorm A. Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal. 2004;328:265–268. [PMC free article: PMC324455] [PubMed: 14742346]

  • Christian JL, O’Leary KD, Vivian D. Depressive symptomatology in maritally discordant women and men: the role of individual and relationship variables. Journal of Family Psychiatry. 1994;8:32–42.

  • Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Geddes JR, et al. Does randomized evidence support sertraline as first-line antidepressant for adults with acute major depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008;69:1732–1742. [PubMed: 19026250]

  • Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new generation antidepressants: a multiple treatments meta-analysis. The Lancet. 2009;373:746–758. [PubMed: 19185342]

  • Clark DM, Layard R, Smithies R. Improving Access to Psychological Therapy: Initial Evaluation of the Two Demonstration Sites, CEP Discussion Papers, dp0897. London: Centre for Economic Performance, LSE; 2008.

  • Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan) Version 4.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. [Computer programme]; 2003.

  • Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan) Version 5.0. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. [Computer programme]; 2008.

  • Cohen HW, Gibson G, Alderman MH. Excess risk of myocardial infarction in patients treated with antidepressant medication: association with use of tricyclic agents. American Journal of Medicine. 2000;108:2–8. [PubMed: 11059434]

  • Cole J, McGuffin P, Farmer AE. The classification of depression: are we still confused? British Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;192:83–85. [PubMed: 18245018]

  • Commander MJ, Sashidharan SP, Odell SM, et al. Access to mental health care in an inner city health district, I: Pathways into and within specialist psychiatric services. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1997;176:407–411. [PubMed: 9246247]

  • Committee on Safety of Medicines. Reminder: St John’s wort (hypericum perforatum) interactions. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance. 2000;26:6–7.

  • Conradi HJ, de Jonge P, Ormel J. Prediction of the three-year course of recurrent depression in primary care patients: different risk factors for different outcomes. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008;105:267–271. [PubMed: 17574685]

  • Cooper-Patrick L, Powe NR, Jenckes MW, et al. Identification of patient attitudes and preferences regarding treatment of depression. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 1997;12:431–438. [PMC free article: PMC1497133] [PubMed: 9229282]

  • Coryell W, Akiskal H, Leon AC, et al. The time course of nonchronic major depressive disorder. Uniformity across episodes and samples. National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Program in the Psychobiology of Depression – Clinical Studies. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1994;51:405–410. [PubMed: 8179464]

  • Cowen PJ. Pharmacological management of treatment resistant depression. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 1998;4:320–327.

  • Coyne JC, Pepper CM, Flynn H. Significance of prior episodes of depression in two patient populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1999;67:76–81. [PubMed: 10028211]

  • Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, et al. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. British Medical Journal. 2008;337:a1655. [PMC free article: PMC2769032] [PubMed: 18824488]

  • Creed F, Black D, Anthony P, et al. Randomised controlled trial of day patient versus inpatient psychiatric treatment. British Medical Journal. 1990;300:1033–1037. [PMC free article: PMC1662770] [PubMed: 2188696]

  • Creed F, Marks B. Liaison psychiatry in general practice: a comparison of the liaison-attachment scheme and shifted outpatient clinic models. Journal of the Royal College of General Practice. 1989;39:514–517. [PMC free article: PMC1712187] [PubMed: 2558209]

  • Crowther RE, Marshall M, Bond GR, et al. Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review. British Medical Journal. 2001;322:204–208. [PMC free article: PMC26585] [PubMed: 11159616]

  • Cuijpers P. Bibliotherapy in unipolar depression: a meta-analysis. Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 1997;28:139–147. [PubMed: 9194011]

  • Cuijpers P, Smit F, van Straten A. Psychological treatments of subthreshold depression: a meta-analytic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2007;115:434–444. [PubMed: 17498154]

  • Cuijpers P, van Straten A, van Oppen P, et al. Are psychological and pharmacologic interventions equally effective in the treatment of adult depressive disorders? A meta-analysis of comparative studies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008;69:1675–1685. [PubMed: 18945396]

  • Cuijpers P, van Straten A, Warmerdam L, et al. Psychological treatmeant of depression: a meta-analytic database of randomized studies. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:36–41. [PMC free article: PMC2408566] [PubMed: 18485191]

  • Cullen JM, Mitchell P, Brodaty H, et al. Carbamazepine for treatment-resistant melancholia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1991;52:472–476. [PubMed: 1744065]

  • Cullen JM, Spates CR, Pagoto S, et al. Behavioral activation treatment for major depressive disorder: a pilot investigation. The Behavior Analyst Today. 2006;7:151–166.

  • Curtis L. Unit Costs of Health and Social Care 2008. Canterbury: Personal Social Services Research Unit, University of Kent; 2009.

  • Dago PL, Quitkin FM. Role of the placebo response in the treatment of depressive disorders. CNS Drugs. 1995;4:335–340.

  • Darling C, Tyler P. Brief encounters in general practice: liaison in general practice psychiatry clinics. Psychiatric Bulletin. 1990;14:592–594.

  • David D, Szentagotai A, Lupu V, et al. Rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a randomized clinical trial, posttreatment outcomes, and six-month follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2008;64:728–746. [PubMed: 18473339]

  • Davidson J, Pelton S. Forms of atypical depression and their response to antidepressant drugs. Psychiatry Research. 1986;17:87–95. [PubMed: 3083445]

  • Davidson K, Scott J, Schmidt U, et al. Therapist competence and clinical outcome in the prevention of parasuicide by manual assisted cognitive behaviour therapy trial: the POPMACT study. Psychological Medicine. 2004;34:855–863. [PubMed: 15500306]

  • Davis LL, Kabel D, Patel D, et al. Valproate as an antidepressant in major depressive disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1996;32:647–652. [PubMed: 8993086]

  • Davison GC. Stepped care: doing more with less? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2000;68:580–585. [PubMed: 10965633]

  • Delgrado PL. Monoamine depletion studies: implications for antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006;67(Suppl 4):22–26. [PubMed: 16683859]

  • De Los Reyes A, Kazdin AE. When the evidence says, ‘Yes, no, and maybe so’: attending to and interpreting inconsistent findings among evidence-based interventions. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2008;17:47–51. [PMC free article: PMC3021137] [PubMed: 21243087]

  • Del Piccolo L, Saltini A, Zimmermann C. Which patients talk about stressful life events and social problems to the general practitioner? Psychological Medicine. 1998;28:1289–1299. [PubMed: 9854270]

  • Department of Health. National Service Framework for Mental Health. London: Department of Health; 1999.

  • Department of Health. The NHS Plan A Plan for Investment A Plan for Reform. London: HMSO; 2000.

  • Department of Health. Exercise Referral Systems: A National Quality Assurance Framework. London: Department of Health; 2001.

  • Department of Health. Fast-forwarding Primary Care Mental Health: Graduate Primary Care Mental Health Workers – Best Practice Guidance. London: Department of Health; 2003.

  • Department of Health. Quality and Outcomes Framework: Guidance. London: Department of Health; 2004.

  • Department of Health. Improving Access to Psychological Therapies: Specification for the Commissioner-led Pathfinder Programme. London: Department of Health; 2007.

  • Department of Health. Prescription Cost Analysis: England 2007. London: Department of Health; 2008.

  • Department of Health. Report on Self Reported Experience of Patients From Black and Minority Ethnic Groups. London: Department of Health; 2008.

  • Department of Health & Social Care Institute for Excellence. SCIE Guide 30: Think Child, Think Parent, Think Family: a Guide to Parental Mental Health and Child Welfare. London: Department of Health; 2009.

  • Department of Health, Social Care Institute for Excellence & Care Services Improvement Partnership. Care Programme Approach (CPA) Briefing: Parents with Mental Health Problems and Their Children. 2008. http://www​.cpaa.co.uk/cpa-briefing.

  • Derogatis LR. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Behavioral Science. 1974;19:1–15. [PubMed: 4808738]

  • DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials. 1986;7:177–188. [PubMed: 3802833]

  • DeRubeis RJ, Feeley M. Determinants of change in cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1990;14:469–482.

  • DeRubeis RJ, Hollon SD, Amsterdam JD, et al. Cognitive therapy versus medications in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2005;62:409–416. [PubMed: 15809408]

  • Dick P, Cameron L, Cohen D, et al. Day and full-time psychiatric treatment: a controlled comparison. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1985;147:246–249. [PubMed: 4063589]

  • Dietrich DE, Emrich HM. The use of anticonvulsants to augment antidepressant medication. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1998;59(Suppl 5):51–58. [PubMed: 9635548]

  • Dolan P, Williams A. A Social Tariff for EuroQol: Results from a UK General Population Survey. York: Centre for Health Economics, University of York; 1995.

  • Dombrovski AY, Mulsant BH, Houck PR, et al. Residual symptoms and recurrence during maintenance treatment of late-life depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2007;103:77–82. [PMC free article: PMC2680091] [PubMed: 17321595]

  • Donoghue J. Antidepressant use patterns in clinical practices: comparisons among tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000;101(Suppl 403):57–61. [PubMed: 11019936]

  • Donoghue J, Hylan TR. Antidepressant use in clinical practice: efficacy v. effectiveness. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;179(Suppl 42):9–17. [PubMed: 11532821]

  • Donoghue J, Tylee A. The treatment of depression: prescribing patterns of antidepressants in primary care in the UK. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;168:164–168. [PubMed: 8837905]

  • Donoghue J, Tylee A, Wildgust H. Cross-sectional database analysis of antidepressant prescribing in general practice in the UK, 1993–1995. British Medical Journal. 1996;313:861–862. [PMC free article: PMC2359032] [PubMed: 8870576]

  • Dornseif BE, Dunlop SR, Potvin JH, et al. Effect of dose escalation after low-dose fluoxetine therapy. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1989;25:71–79. [PubMed: 2672072]

  • Dowrick CF. Beyond Depression. Oxford; Oxford University Press; 2004.

  • Dowrick C, Dunn G, Ayuso-Mateos JT, et al. Problem solving treatment and group psychoeducation for depression: multicentre randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal. 2000;321:1450–1454. [PMC free article: PMC27549] [PubMed: 11110739]

  • Doyle JJ, Casciano J, Arikian S, et al. A multinational pharmacoeconomic evaluation of acute major depressive disorder (MDD): a comparison of cost-effectiveness between venlafaxine, SSRIs and TCAs. Value in Health. 2001;4:16–31. [PubMed: 11704969]

  • Drevets WC, Price JL, Furey ML. Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Structure and Function. 2008;213:93–118. [PMC free article: PMC2522333] [PubMed: 18704495]

  • Drummond MF, Jefferson TO. on behalf of the BMJ Economic Evaluation Working Party. Guidelines for authors and peer reviewers of economic submissions to the BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1996;313:275–283. [PMC free article: PMC2351717] [PubMed: 8704542]

  • Dunbar GC, Cohn JB, Fabre LF, et al. A comparison of paroxetine, imipramine and placebo in depressed outpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1991;159:394–398. [PubMed: 1835664]

  • Dunn RL, Donoghue JM, Ozminkowski RJ, et al. Longitudinal patterns of antidepressant prescribing in primary care in the UK: comparison with treatment guidelines. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 1999;13:136–143. [PubMed: 10475718]

  • Dwamena B. MIDAS: Stata Module for Meta-analytical Integration of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies, Statistical Software Components S456880. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston College Department of Economics; 2007.

  • Eagles JM, Wileman SM, Cameron IM, et al. Seasonal affective disorder among primary care attenders and a community sample in Aberdeen. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999;175:472–475. [PubMed: 10789281]

  • Eccles M, Freemantle N, Mason J. North of England evidence-based guideline development project: methods of developing guidelines for efficient drug use in primary care. British Medical Journal. 1998;316:1232–1235. [PMC free article: PMC1112989] [PubMed: 9553004]

  • Edwards JG, Goldie A. Mianserin, maprotiline and intracardiac conduction. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1983;15(Suppl 2):249–254. [PMC free article: PMC1427885] [PubMed: 6824556]

  • Egan G. The Skilled Helper: A Systematic Approach to Effective Helping. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole; 1990.

  • Einarson TR, Arikian SR, Casciano J, et al. Comparison of extended-release venlafaxine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of depression: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clinical Therapeutics. 1999;21:296–308. [PubMed: 10211533]

  • Ekers D, Richards D, Gilbody S. A meta-analysis of randomized trials of behavioural treatment of depression. Psychological Medicine. 2007;38:611–623. [PubMed: 17903337]

  • Elgie R. A patient and primary care perspective: a patient’s perspective on the treatment of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006;67(Suppl 6):38–40. [PubMed: 16848676]

  • Eli Lilly and Co. Ltd. Cymbalta. Summary of Product Characteristics. Basingstoke: Eli Lilly; 2009. Available at: http://www​.medicines​.org.uk/emc/medicine/15694.

  • Elkin I. The NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research programme: where we began and where we are, Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behaviour Change. 4. Bergin AE, Garfield SL, editors. New York: Wiley; 1994.

  • Elkin I, Shea MT, Watkins J, et al. National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Programme. General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1989;46:971–982. [PubMed: 2684085]

  • Ellis AE. Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy: A Comprehensive Method of Treating Human Disturbances: Revised and Updated. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Corporation; 1962.

  • Ellis CG. Chronic unhappiness: investigating the phenomenon in family practice. Canadian Family Physician. 1996;42:645–651. [PMC free article: PMC2146397] [PubMed: 8653032]

  • Emery G. Cognitive therapy with the elderly. In: Emery G, Hollon SD, Bedrosian RC, editors. New Directions in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press; 1981. pp. 84–98.

  • Evans C, Mellor-Clark J, Margison F, et al. Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation: The CORE-OM. Journal of Mental Health. 2000;9:247–255.

  • Faravelli C, Servi P, Arends JA, et al. Number of symptoms, quantification and qualification of depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 1996;37:307–315. [PubMed: 8879904]

  • Fava GA, Ruini C, Rafanelli C, et al. Six-year outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for prevention of recurrent depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2004;161:1872–1876. [PubMed: 15465985]

  • Fava M, Kendler K. Major depressive disorder. Neuron. 2000;28:335–341. [PubMed: 11144343]

  • Fava M, Mulroy R, Alpert J, et al. Emergence of adverse events following discontinuation of treatment with extended-release venlafaxine. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1997;154:1760–1762. [PubMed: 9396960]

  • Feeley M, DeRubeis RJ, Gelfand LA. The temporal relation of adherence and alliance to symptom change in cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1999;67:578–582. [PubMed: 10450629]

  • Feighner JP. Cardiovascular safety in depressed patients: focus on venlafaxine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

  • 0 Replies to “Douglas Rutherford Bibliography Apa”

    Lascia un Commento

    L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *