Title: Machine Layout and Performance
Authors:D. Angal-Kalinin, R. Appleby, G. Arduini, D. Banfi, J. Barranco, N. Biancacci, D. Brett, R. Bruce, O. Bruening, X. Buffat, A. Burov, Y. Cai, R. Calaga, A. Chancé, M. Crouch, B. Dalena, H. Day, R. de Maria, J. Esteban Muller, S. Fartoukh, M. Fitterer, O. Frasciello, M. Giovannozzi, W. Herr, W. Höfle, B. Holzer, G. Iadarola, J.M. Jowett, M. Korostelev, K. Li, E. McIntosh, E. Métral, A. Mostacci, N. Mounet, B. Muratori, Y. Nosochkov, K. Ohmi, Y. Papaphilippou, S. Paret, J. Payet, T. Pieloni, J. Qiang, T. Rijoff, L. Rossi, G. Rumolo, B. Salvant, M. Schaumann, E. Shaposhnikova, D. Shatilov, C. Tambasco, R. Tomás, A. Valishev, M.-H. Wang, R. Wanzenberg, S. White, A. Wolski, O. Zagorodnova, C. Zannini, F. Zimmermann, M. Zobov
(Submitted on 26 May 2017)
Abstract: Chapter 2 in High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.
Submission historyFrom: Scientific Information Service CERN [view email] [via SCIENTIFIC proxy]
[v1] Fri, 26 May 2017 06:38:05 GMT (2317kb)
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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is built in a circular tunnel 27 km in circumference. The tunnel is buried around 50 to 175 m. underground. It straddles the Swiss and French borders on the outskirts of Geneva.
The first beams were circulated successfully on 10th September 2008. Unfortunately on 19th September a serious fault developed damaging a number of superconducting magnets. The repair required a long technical intervention. The LHC beam did not see beam again before November 2009.
First collisions took place on 30th March 2010 with the rest of the year mainly devoted to commissioning. 2011 was the first production year with over 5 inverse femtobarns delivered to both ATLAS and CMS. 2012 started well with over 6 inverse femtobarns delivered by the time of the summer conferences - these data paved the way for the announcement of a/the Higgs on 4th July 2012.
The LHC is designed to collide two counter rotating beams of protons or heavy ions. Proton-proton collisions are foreseen at an energy of 7 TeV per beam.
The beams move around the LHC ring inside a continuous vacuum guided by magnets.
- The magnets are superconducting and are cooled by a huge cryogenics system. The cables conduct current without resistance in their superconducting state.
- The beams will be stored at high energy for hours. During this time collisions take place inside the four main LHC experiments.