Anti Corruption Essay In English Wikipedia Amy

Fear is a basic emotional sensation and response system ("feeling") initiated by an aversion to some perceived risk or threat.

Quotes[edit]

  • Oderint dum metuant.
    • Let them hate, so long as they fear.
    • Lucius Accius from Atreus, quoted in Seneca, Dialogues, Books III–V "De Ira", I, 20, 4.
  • Fear is the foundation of most governments.
  • Fear, imposed from the top down- from shareholder to senior executive, senior executive to executive, and so on down the chain right to the maximally squeezed Manpower temp- is the dominant trope in the post-Reagan corporate culture. One of the simplest ways to instill this fear is to make employees acutely aware that their jobs are never safe.
    • Mark Ames, Going Postal: Rage, Murder and Rebellion: From Reagan's Workplaces to Clinton's Columbine and Beyond (2005), p. 103
  • He who has overcome his fears will truly be free.
    • Variant: I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies.
    • Aristotle, Quoted in Florilegium by Joannes Stobaeus
  • Nothing is terrible except fear itself.
    • Francis Bacon, De Augmentis Scientiarum, Book II, Fortitudo (1623).
  • Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark; and as that natural fear in children is increased with tales, so is the other.
  • I think that for the coward every day carries a kind of death.
  • Far too many people have been swept into the post-9/11 system of fear that is the basis of all public policy these days.
  • Fear of serious injury cannot alone justify suppression of free speech and assembly. Men feared witches and burnt women. It is the function of speech to free men from the bondage of irrational fears.
    • Louis Brandeis, concurring, Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357, 376 (1927).
  • All our times have come
    Here but now they're gone
    Seasons don't fear the reaper
    Nor do the wind, the sun or the rain... we can be like they are
    Come on baby... don't fear the reaper
    Baby take my hand... don't fear the reaper
    We'll be able to fly... don't fear the reaper
    Baby I'm your man...
  • The greatest weakness of all weaknesses is to fear too much to appear weak.
    • Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, Politique Tirée de l'Écriture Sainte (Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture) (1679 - published 1709).
  • There's no need to fear, Underdog is here!
    • Underdog, (1964 – 1973), produced by W. Watts Biggers.
  • No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear.
    • Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1756).
  • The concessions of the weak are the concessions of fear.
    • Edmund Burke, Second Speech on Conciliation with America. The Thirteen Resolutions (March 22, 1775).
  • Early and provident fear is the mother of safety.
    • Edmund Burke, speech on the petition of the Unitarians, House of Commons (May 11, 1792); in The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke (1899), vol. 7, p. 50.
  • There is a courageous wisdom; there is also a false, reptile prudence, the result not of caution but of fear.
    • Attributed to Edmund Burke; reported as unverified in Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations (1989).
  • The fear of some divine and supreme powers keeps men in obedience.
    • Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, Part III, Section 4, member 1, subsec. 2 (1621-1651).
  • They are the driven crowds that makes the army of the authoritarian overlord; they are the stuffing of conservatism ... mediocrity is their god. They fear the stranger, they fear the new idea; they are afraid to live, and scared to die.
  • Surrendering to fear and allowing ourselves to be paralyzed by peril isn't something most of us can afford to do.
  • The point is, we can decry the dangers we face or ignore them or even allow ourselves to be paralyzed by fear.
  • Myths are themselves a very important kind of proof. Myths preserve the history of human thought - dreams, nightmares, and memories - as well as the history of human deeds. And tangible proof aside, the legendary Amazons have been an almost universal male nightmare. Men have believed in them. Psychologically speaking, we don't fear something that doesn't exist, something that never happened, something that never could happen - any more than people forbid or regulate something that no one wants to do anyway.
  • So much of "normal, civilized" life is bull that you can't imagine. … What frightens you, doesn't frighten me, what frightens me, you'd laugh at.
  • Not living in fear is a great gift, because certainly these days we do it so much. And do you know what I like about comedy? You can’t laugh and be afraid at the same time—of anything. If you're laughing, I defy you to be afraid.
  • Like one that on a lonesome road
    Doth walk in fear and dread,
    And having once turned round walks on,
    And turns no more his head;
    Because he knows, a frightful fiend
    Doth close behind him tread.
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Part VI, st. 10 (1798).
  • Who is all-powerful should fear everything.
  • Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
    • Marie Curie, As quoted in Our Precarious Habitat (1973) by Melvin A. Benarde, p. v.
  • Où serait le mérite, si les héros n'avaient jamais peur?
    • Where would be the merit if heroes were never afraid?
    • Alphonse Daudet, Tartarin de Tarascon (1872); French cited from Tartarin de Tarascon (Paris: E. Flammarion, 1887), p. 204; translation from the Webster's French Thesaurus edition (San Diego: Icon, 2008), p. 80.
  • Death in itself is nothing; but we fear
    To be we know not what, we know not where.
  • Courage is the price that life exacts for granting peace.
    The soul that knows it not, know no release
    From little things;
    Knows not the livid loneliness of fear,
    Nor mountain heights where bitter joy can hear
    The sound of wings.
  • Always believe that God is with you, and fear nothing.
  • It was a high counsel that I once heard given to a young person, — always do what you are afraid to do.
  • O friend, never strike sail to a fear! Come into port greatly, or sail with God the seas.
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Heroism", Essays: First Series (1903; vol. 2 of The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson), p. 259–60.
  • Quem metuunt oderunt; quem quisque odit, perisse expetit.
    • Whom they fear, they hate; and whom they hate they want dead.
      • Ennius as quoted by Cicero in De Officiis, Book II, Chapter 23
  • Quite an experience, to live in fear, isn't it? That's what it is to be a slave.
    • Roy Batty in Blade Runner (1982), script by Hampton Fancher & David Peoples
  • Depend on me; never fear your enemies. Ill warrant We make more noise than they.
    • Henry Fielding, The Universal Gallant : Or, the Different Husbands, A Comedy (1735).
  • The road remains wide open while your dreams are alive. Only fear can block the way. Let fear propel you forward. Do not look back. Do not let failure stifle you.
  • None but a coward dares to boast that he has never known fear.
    • Ferdinand Foch, As quoted in Encarta Book of Quotations (2000) by Bill Swainson and Anne H. Soukhanov, p. 338.
  • Fear, fear, she's the mother of violence
Making me tense to watch the way she breed
Fear, she's the mother of violence
You know self-defense is all you need
It's getting hard to breathe
It's getting so hard to believe
To believe in anything at all
  • The fear of death is born with man, though this is the only thing he knows is certain to happen to him. Attachment to material things makes man cling to life. When you chant the Name of the Divine, when you are one with the divine, you accept death. While you are attached to life and afraid of death, you die with that fear and that weight clinging to you. If you have attained liberation you are free from death (you accept inevitable). You die without fear and by remembering the Name of God, your soul leaves the body free of that fear and attachment. If you are reborn, your soul is still free from that fear. If you die in 'unity', you are free from rebirth, unless you will it.
  • Magneto: Are you a God-fearing man, Senator? It's such a strange phrase. I've always thought of God as a teacher. As a bringer of light, wisdom and understanding. You see, l think what you really are afraid of is me. Me and my kind. The brotherhood of mutants. It's not so surprising, really. Mankind has always feared what it doesn't understand. Well, don't fear God, Senator, and certainly don't fear me. Not any more.
  • Do not be afraid because of their appearance, for ‘I am with you to save you,’ declares Jehovah.
  • Kain: Your words are heartening. For you would not fear us, unless we could truly do you harm.
  • I must not fear. Fear is the mind-killer. Fear is the little-death that brings total obliteration. I will face my fear. I will permit it to pass over me and through me. And when it has gone past I will turn the inner eye to see its path. Where the fear has gone there will be nothing. Only I will remain.
  • The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear.
    • Heinrich Himmler, as quoted in Visions of Reality: A Study of Abnormal Perception and Behavior (2007) by Alberto Rivas, p. 162
  • It is when power is wedded to chronic fear that it becomes formidable.
  • You can discover what your enemy fears most by observing the means he uses to frighten you.
    • Eric Hoffer, The Passionate State Of Mind, and Other Aphorisms Section 222 (1955).
  • Never fear your, enemies. A bold fight is the best: we should advance, and not retrograde.
    • William Alanson Howard, Official Proceedings of the National Republican Conventions of 1868, 1872, 1876, and 1880 (1903), p. 250.
  • Our work for peace must begin within the private world of each one of us. To build for man a world without fear, we must be without fear. To build a world of justice, we must be just. And how can we fight for liberty if we are not free in our own minds? How can we ask others to sacrifice if we are not ready to do so?… Only in true surrender to the interest of all can we reach that strength and independence, that unity of purpose, that equity of judgment which are necessary if we are to measure up to our duty to the future, as men of a generation to whom the chance was given to build in time a world of peace.
  • Be not afraid of life. Believe that life is worth living, and your belief will help create the fact.
    • William James, in "Is Life Worth Living?" The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897).
  • I am not afraid to kill you for their is no death.
    • Alejandro's Jodorowsky, El Topo.
  • Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
    • John F. Kennedy, inaugural address (January 20, 1961); in The Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, p. 2.
  • We have genuflected before the God of Science only to find that it has given us the atomic bomb, producing fears and anxieties that science can never mitigate.
  • Fear is an emotion that makes us blind. How many things are we afraid of? We're afraid to turn off the lights when our hands are wet. We're afraid to stick a knife into the toaster to get the stuck English muffin without unpluggin it first. We're afraid of what the doctor may tell us when the physical exam is over; when the airplane suddenly takes a great unearthly lurch in midair. We're afraid that the oil may run out, that the good air will run out, the good water, the good life. When the daughter promised to be in by eleven and it's now quarter past twelve and sleet is spatting against the window like dry sand, we sit and pretend to watch Johnny Carson and look occasionally at the mute telephone and we feel the emotion that makes us blind, the emotion that makes a stealthy ruin of the thinking process.
  • Fear makes us blind, and we touch each fear with all the avid curiousity of self-interest, trying to make a whole out of a hundred parts, like the blind men with their elephant. We sense the shape. Children grasp it easily, forget it, and relearn it as adults. The shape is there, and most of us come to realize what it is sooner or later: it is the shape of a body under a sheet. All our fears add up to one great fear, all our fears are part of that great fear - an arm, a leg, a finger, an ear. We're afraid of the body under the sheet. It's our body. And the great appeal of horror fiction through the ages is that it serves as a rehearsal for our own deaths.
  • Roger: But if there's something that frightens you, there are those that turn their eyes away and there are those who try to see through the fear and conquer it.
    • Chiaki Konaka, The Big O, Under Ground Terror, (2001-04-05)
  • Even the fear of death is nothing compared to the fear of not having lived authentically and fully.
  • I've grown certain that the root of all fear is that we've been forced to deny who we are.
  • The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown.
  • They are slaves who fear to speak
    For the fallen and the weak.
  • Fear. Fear attracts the fearful. The strong. The weak. The innocent. The corrupt. Fear. Fear is my ally.
  • Fear is the path to the Dark Side. Fear leads to anger, anger leads to hate, hate leads to suffering.
    • Yoda in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999)., written by George Lucas
  • Alike were they free from
    Fear, that reigns with the tyrant, and envy, the vice of republics.
  • For as children tremble and fear everything in the blind darkness, so we in the light sometimes fear what is no more to be feared than the things children in the dark hold in terror and imagine will come true.
    • Lucretius, De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things), Book II, l. 87.
  • From this arises the question whether it is better to be loved rather than feared, or feared rather than loved. It might perhaps be answered that we should wish to be both: but since love and fear can hardly exist together, if we must choose between them, it is far safer to be feared than loved.
  • I must say a word about fear. It is life's only true opponent. Only fear can defeat life.
  • I must say a word about fear. It is life's only true opponent. Only fear can defeat life. It is a clever, treacherous adversary, how well I know. It has no decency, respects no law or convention, shows no mercy. It goes for your weakest spot, which it finds with unerring ease. It begins in your mind, always. One moment you are feeling calm, self-possessed, happy. Then fear, disguised in the garb of mild-mannered doubt, slips into your mind like a spy. Doubt meets disbelief and disbelief tries to push it out. But disbelief is a poorly armed foot soldier. Doubt does away with it with little trouble. You become anxious. Reason comes to do battle for you. You are reassured. Reason is fully equipped with the latest weapons technology. But, to your amazement, despite superior tactics and a number of undeniable victories, reason is laid low. You feel yourself weakening, wavering. Your anxiety becomes dread. Fear next turns fully to your body, which is already aware that something terribly wrong is going on. Already your lungs have flown away like a bird and your guts have slithered away like a snake. Now your tongue drops dead like an opossum, while your jaw begins to gallop on the spot. Your ears go deaf. Your muscles begin to shiver as if they had malaria and your knees to shake as though they were dancing. Your heart strains too hard, while your sphincter relaxes too much. And so with the rest of your body. Every part of you, in the manner most suited to it, falls apart. Only your eyes work well. They always pay proper attention to fear.
    Quickly you make rash decisions. You dismiss your last allies: hope and trust. There, you've defeated yourself. Fear, which is but an impression, has triumphed over you. The matter is difficult to put into words. For fear, real fear, such as shakes you to your foundation, such as you feel when you are brought face to face with your mortal end, nestles in your memory like a gangrene: it seeks to rot everything, even the words with which to speak of it. So you must fight hard to express it. You must fight hard to shine the light of words upon it. Because if you don't, if your fear becomes a wordless darkness that you avoid, perhaps even manage to forget, you open yourself to further attacks of fear because you never truly fought the opponent who defeated you
  • I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.
  • The only good bureaucrat is one with a pistol at his head. Put it in his hand and it's goodbye to the Bill of Rights.
    • H.L. Mencken, "A Time to be Wary" (1933), collected in A Carnival of Buncombe.
  • C'est de quoi j'ai le plus de peur que la peur.
  • We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason if we… remember that we are not descended from fearful men, not from men who feared to write, to speak, to associate and to defend causes which were, for the moment unpopular.
  • There is a mental fear, which provokes others of us to see the images of witches in a neighbor's yard and stampedes us to burn down this house. And there is a creeping fear of doubt, doubt of what we have been taught, of the validity of so many things we had long since taken for granted to be durable and unchanging. It has become more difficult than ever to distinguish black from white, good from evil, right from wrong.
  • As long as I have a pen in my hand and a revolver in my pocket, I fear no one.
    • Benito Mussolini, 1914. Quoted in Paolo Monelli, Mussolini:the intimate life of a demagogue, Vanguard Press, 1954.
  • One will rarely err if extreme actions be ascribed to vanity, ordinary actions to habit, and mean actions to fear.
  • To show pity is felt as a sign of contempt because one has clearly ceased to be an object of fear as soon as one is pitied.
  • The broad effects which can be obtained by punishment in man and beast are the increase of fear, the sharpening of the sense of cunning, the mastery of the desires; so it is that punishment tames man, but does not make him "better."
  • There are few things more liberating in this life than having your worst fear realized.
  • When children from other countries are telling us that we've made them fear the sky, it might be time to ask some hard questions.
  • Everybody's afraid, but to do your job in combat you have to put your fear down. If you're not afraid in combat, you're either a fool or a liar.
    • George S. Patton IV, as quoted in The Bad War: An Oral History of the Vietnam War (1987) by Kim Willenson, p. 79
  • I don't know about angels, but it's fear that gives men wings.
  • The wise man, fearing, keeps himself from evil; but the foolish man goes on in his pride, with no thought of danger.
    • Proverbs 14:16, Bible in Basic English
  • In all your actions, words and thoughts, always regard yourself as standing before Hashem, with His Shechinah above you, for His glory fills the whole world. Speak with fear and awe, as a slave standing before his master. Act with restraint in front of everyone. When someone calls you, don't answer loudly, but gently and softly, as one who stands before his master.
  • Goliath: It is the nature of humankind to fear what they do not understand. Their ways are not our ways.
    • Gargoyles (TV series)Awakening Part 1, teleplay by Michael Reaves, story by Michael Reaves & Eric Luke, (October 24, 1994)
  • Let the fear of a danger be a spur to prevent it: He that fears otherwise, gives advantage to the danger.
  • The surest way to prevent war is not to fear it.
    • John Randolph, speech in the House of Representatives (March 5, 1806).
  • The only thing you fear is fearlessness.
    The bigger the weapon, the greater the fear.
  • Most intellectual people do not believe in God, but they fear him just the same.
    • Wilhelm Reich, in James Lee Christian Philosophy : An Introduction to the Art of Wondering, (2005), p. 556.
  • Hatred does not exist as a basic psychological structure. It is, however, the result of psychological manipulation of fear; and fear is not a basic psychological structure.
    • Jane Roberts, The Early Sessions: Book 2, Session 75, Page 271.
  • L'amour de la justice n'est en la plupart des hommes que la crainte de souffrir l'injustice.
    • The love of justice is simply in the majority of men the fear of suffering injustice.
    • François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections; or Sentences and Moral Maxims, Maxim 78 (1665–1678).
  • Notre repentir n'est pas tant un regret du mal que nous avons fait, qu'une crainte de celui qui nous en peut arriver.
    • Our repentance is not so much sorrow for the ill we have done as a fear of the ill that may befall us.
    • François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections; or Sentences and Moral Maxims, Maxim 180 (1665–1678).
  • Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt, inaugural address (March 4, 1933); in The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933 (1938), p. 11.
  • We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression — everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way — everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want… everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear… anywhere in the world.
  • You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, "I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along." …You must do the thing you think you cannot do.
  • Fear was my father, Father Fear.
    His look drained the stones.
  • Fear doesn't shut you down; it wakes you up.
  • There are three things all wise men fear: the sea in storm, a night with no moon, and the anger of a gentle man.
  • Fear is the main source of superstition, and one of the main sources of cruelty. To conquer fear is the beginning of wisdom.
  • No man is liberated from fear who dare not see his place in the world as it is; no man can achieve the greatness of which he is capable until he has allowed himself to see his own littleness.
  • Religion is based, I think, primarily and mainly upon fear.
    • Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (1927), "Fear, the Foundation of Religion".
  • To fear love is to fear life, and those who fear life are already three parts dead.
  • Christianity offers reasons for not fearing death or the universe, and in so doing it fails to teach adequately the virtue of courage. The craving for religious faith being largely an outcome of fear, the advocates of faith tend to think that certain kinds of fear are not to be deprecated. In this, to my mind, they are gravely mistaken. To allow oneself to entertain pleasant beliefs as a means of avoiding fear is not to live in the best way. In so far as religion makes its appeal to fear, it is lowering to human dignity.
  • There are two ways of coping with fear: one is to diminish the external danger, and the other is to cultivate Stoic endurance. The latter can be reinforced, except where immediate action is necessary, by turning our thoughts away from the cause of fear. The conquest of fear is of very great importance. Fear is in itself degrading; it easily becomes an obsession; it produces hate of that which is feared, and it leads headlong to excesses of cruelty. Nothing has so beneficent an effect on human beings as security. …Fear, at present, overshadows the world. …If matters are to improve, the first and essential step is to find a way of diminishing fear.
    • Bertrand Russell, Nobel Lecture: What Desires Are Politically Important? (11 December, 1950).
  • Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric.
    • Bertrand Russell, "A Liberal Decalogue", New York Times Magazine (16 December, 1951).
  • What terrified me will terrify others; and I need only describe the spectre which had haunted my midnight pillow.
  • Anything which is accomplished through making other people afraid is wrong. Anything which deprives other people of their dignity is wrong.
    • Alexander D. Shimkin, American civil rights worker and journalist, from Alex Shimkin oral history interview (cassette tape and transcript), 1965, Box 3, Folder 56, Archive no. 0050, Project South, SC 066, Stanford University Archives, Stanford, Calif.
  • Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear.
  • The fear of death is more to be dreaded than death itself.
  • Fear needn’t be grounded in fact to cause problems.
  • Man’s basic anxiety … drives the anxious subject to establish objects of fear. Anxiety strives to become fear, because fear can be met by courage. … Horror is ordinarily avoided by the transformation of anxiety into fear of something, no matter what. The human mind is not only, as Calvin has said, a permanent factory of idols, it is also a permanent factory of fears—the first in order to escape God, the second in order to escape anxiety. … But ultimately the attempts to transform anxiety into fear are vain. The basic anxiety, the anxiety of a finite being about the threat of nonbeing, cannot be eliminated. It belongs to existence itself.
  • Is it that they fear the pain of death, or could it be they fear the joy of life?
  • Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear — not absence of fear. Except a creature be part coward it is not a compliment to say it is brave; it is merely a loose application of the word. Consider the flea! — incomparably the bravest of all the creatures of God, if ignorance of fear were courage.
  • The workplace is never free of fear- and it shouldn't be. Indeed, fear can be a powerful management tool.
    • Wall Street Journal, "Manager's Journal: Fear Is Nothing To Be Afraid Of," January 27, 1997. As quoted by Mark Ames in Going Postal: Rage, Murder and Rebellion: From Reagan's Workplaces to Clinton's Columbine and Beyond (2005), p. 103
  • When I can read my title clear
    To mansions in the skies,
    I'll bid farewell to every fear,
    And wipe my weeping eyes.
    • Isaac Watts, Hymns and Spiritual Songs, Book II, hymn 65.
  • The only thing I am afraid of is fear.
  • I am a member of a party of one, and I live in an age of fear. Nothing lately has unsettled my party and raised my fears so much as your editorial, on Thanksgiving Day, suggesting that employees should be required to state their beliefs in order to hold their jobs. The idea is inconsistent with our constitutional theory and has been stubbornly opposed by watchful men since the early days of the Republic.
    • E. B. White, letter to the New York Herald Tribune (November 29, 1947).
  • Fair seedtime had my soul, and I grew up
    Fostered alike by beauty and by fear.
  • Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis.
    • Whatever it is, I fear Greeks even when they bring gifts.
    • Virgil, The Aeneid, Book II, l. 49.
  • Take the so-called politics of fear — the constant reference to risks, from hoodies on the street corner to international terrorism. Whatever the truth of these risks and the best ways of dealing with them, the politics of fear plays on an assumption that people cannot bear the uncertainties associated with them. Politics then becomes a question of who can better deliver an illusion of control.
  • Be a hero. Always say, “I have no fear.” Tell this to everyone—“Have no fear.”
  • There is no governor anywhere; you are all absolutely free. There is no restraint that cannot be escaped. We are all absolutely free. If everybody could go into dhyana at will, nobody could be controlled — by fear of prison, by fear of whips or electroshock, by fear of death, even. All existing society is based on keeping those fears alive, to control the masses. Ten people who know would be more dangerous than a million armed anarchists.
  • I think there's a lot of people out there who say we must not have horror in any form, we must not say scary things to children because it will make them evil and disturbed... That offends me deeply, because the world is a scary and horrifying place, and everyone's going to get old and die, if they're that lucky. To set children up to think that everything is sunshine and roses is doing them a great disservice. Children need horror because there are things they don't understand. It helps them to codify it if it is mythologized, if it's put into the context of a story, whether the story has a happyending or not. If it scares them and shows them a little bit of the dark side of the world that is there and always will be, it's helping them out when they have to face it as adults.
    • Joss Whedon to Michael Silverberg of NPR; quote featured in the Buffy Monster Book (2000)
  • To use fear as the friend it is, we must retrain and reprogram ourselves… We must persistently and convincingly tell ourselves that the fear is here--with its gift of energy and heightened awareness--so we can do our best and learn the most in the new situation.
  • On my way from school to home I heard a man saying “I will kill you.” I hastened my pace and after a while I looked back if the man was still coming behind me. But to my utter relief he was talking on his mobile and must have been threatening someone else over the phone.

The Bible[edit]

  • Upon earth there is not his like, who is made without fear.
  • When the attendant of the man of the true God rose early and went outside, he saw that an army with horses and war chariots was surrounding the city. At once the attendant said to him: “Alas, my master! What are we to do?” But he said: “Do not be afraid! For there are more who are with us than those who are with them.”
  • Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
    I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.
  • The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? the Lord is the strength of my life; of whom shall I be afraid?
  • God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore will we not fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea.
  • As the heaven is high above the earth, so great is his mercy toward them that fear him.
  • The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.
  • Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.

Shakespeare[edit]

  • Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear;
    When little fears grow great, great love grows there.
  • Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind;
    The thief doth fear each bush an officer.
  • O God of battles! steel my soldiers' hearts;
    Possess them not with fear; take from them now
    The sense of reckoning, if the opposèd numbers
    Pluck their hearts from them.
  • Things done well,
    And with a care, exempt themselves from fear;
    Things done without example, in their issue
    Are to be feared.
  • It is the part of men to fear and tremble,
    When the most mighty gods by tokens send
    Such dreadful heralds to astonish us.
  • For I am sick and capable of fears,
    Oppress'd with wrongs, and therefore full of fears,
    A widow, husbandless, subject to fears,
    A woman, naturally born to fears.
  • Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep
    In the affliction of these terrible dreams
    That shake us nightly.
  • You can behold such sights,
    And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks,
    When mine is blanch'd with fear.
  • His flight was madness: when our actions do not,
    Our fears do make us traitors.
  • The weariest and most loathed worldly life
    That age, ache, penury, and imprisonment
    Can lay on nature is a paradise
    To what we fear of death.
  • Extreme fear can neither fight nor fly.
  • To fear the foe, since fear oppresseth strength,
    Gives in your weakness strength unto your foe.
  • Truly the souls of men are full of dread:
    Ye cannot reason almost with a man
    That looks not heavily and full of fear.
  • They spake not a word;
    But, like dumb statues or breathing stones,
    Gazed each on other, and look'd deadly pale.

Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations[edit]

Quotes reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 267-70.
  • No one loves the man whom he fears.
  • Crux est si metuas quod vincere nequeas.
    • It is tormenting to fear what you cannot overcome.
    • Ausonius, Septem Sapientum Sententiæ Septenis Versibus Explicatæ, VII. 4.
  • The brave man is not he who feels no fear,
    For that were stupid and irrational;
    But he, whose noble soul its fear subdues,
    And bravely dares the danger nature shrinks from.
  • An aching tooth is better out than in,
    To lose a rotten member is a gain.
  • Dangers bring fears, and fears more dangers bring.
  • The fear o' hell's the hangman's whip
    To laud the wretch in order;
    But where ye feel your honor grip,
    Let that aye be your border.
  • Fear is an ague, that forsakes
    And haunts, by fits, those whom it takes;
    And they'll opine they feel the pain
    And blows they felt, to-day, again.
  • His fear was greater than his haste:
    For fear, though fleeter than the wind,
    Believes 'tis always left behind.
  • In summo periculo timor misericordiam non recipit.
    • In extreme danger fear feels no pity.
    • Julius Caesar, Bellum Gallicum, VII. 26.
  • Timor non est diuturnus magister officii.
    • Fear is not a lasting teacher of duty.
    • Cicero, Philippicæ, II. 36.
  • Like one, that on a lonesome road
    Doth walk in fear and dread,
    And having once turned round, walks on,
    And turns no more his head;
    Because he knows a frightful fiend
    Doth close behind him tread.
  • His frown was full of terror, and his voice
    Shook the delinquent with such fits of awe
    As left him not, till penitence had won
    Lost favor back again, and clos'd the breach.
  • The clouds dispell'd, the sky resum'd her light,
    And Nature stood recover'd of her fright.
    But fear, the last of ills, remain'd behind,
    And horror heavy sat on every mind.
  • We are not apt to fear for the fearless, when we are companions in their danger.
    • George Eliot, The Mill on the Floss (1860), Book VII, Chapter V.
  • Fear is the parent of cruelty.
  • Quia me vestigia terrent
    Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum.
    • I am frightened at seeing all the footprints directed towards thy den, and none returning.
    • Horace, Epistles, I. 1. 74.
  • You are uneasy, * * * you never sailed with me before, I see.
  • Shame arises from the fear of men, conscience from the fear of God.
  • De loin, c'est quelque chose; et de prés, ce n'est rien.
    • From a distance it is something; and nearby it is nothing.
    • Jean de La Fontaine, Fables, IV. 10.
  • Major ignotarum rerum est terror.
    • Apprehensions are greater in proportion as things are unknown.
    • Livy, Annales, XXVIII. 44.
  • Oh, fear not in a world like this,
    And thou shalt know ere long,—
    Know how sublime a thing it is
    To suffer and be strong.
  • They are slaves who fear to speak
    For the fallen and the weak.
  • The direst foe of courage is the fear itself, not the object of it; and the man who can overcome his own terror is a hero and more.
  • Wink and shut their apprehensions up.
  • The thing in the world I am most afraid of is fear, and with good reason; that passion alone, in the trouble of it, exceeding all other accidents.
  • Imagination frames events unknown,
    In wild, fantastic shapes of hideous ruin,
    And what it fears creates.
  • Quem metuit quisque, perisse cupit.
    • Every one wishes that the man whom he fears would perish.
    • Ovid, Amorum (16 BC), II. 2. 10.
  • Membra reformidant mollem quoque saucia tactum:
    Vanaque sollicitis incutit umbra metum.
    • The wounded limb shrinks from the slightest touch; and a slight shadow alarms the nervous.
    • Ovid, Epistolæ Ex Ponto, II. 7. 13.
  • Terretur minimo pennæ stridore columba
    Unguibus, accipiter, saucia facta tuis.
    • The dove, O hawk, that has once been wounded by thy talons, is frightened by the least movement of a wing.
    • Ovid, Tristium, I. 1. 75.
  • Then flash'd the living lightning from her eyes,
    And screams of horror rend th' affrighted skies,
    Not louder shrieks to pitying Heaven are cast,
    When husbands, or when lap dogs, breathe their last;
    Or when rich China vessels fallen, from high,
    In glittering dust and painted fragments lie.
  • A lamb appears a lion, and we fear
    Each bush we see's a bear.
  • Fain would I climb, yet fear I to fall.
    • Sir Walter Raleigh, written on a window pane for Queen Elizabeth to see. She wrote under it "If thy heart fails thee, climb not at all." Thomas Fuller, Worthies of England, Volume I, p. 419.
  • Ad deteriora credenda proni metu.
  • Ubi explorari vera non possunt, falsa per metum augentur.
    • When the truth cannot be clearly made out, what is false is increased through fear.
    • Quintus Curtius Rufus, De Rebus Gestis Alexandri Magni, IV, 10, 10.
  • Ubi intravit animos pavor, id solum metuunt, quod primum formidare cœperunt.
    • When fear has seized upon the mind, man fears that only which he first began to fear.
    • Quintus Curtius Rufus, De Rebus Gestis Alexandri Magni, IV, 16, 17.
  • Quem neque gloria neque pericula excitant, nequidquam hortere; timor animi auribus officit.
    • The man who is roused neither by glory nor by danger it is in vain to exhort; terror closes the ears of the mind.
    • Sallust, Catilina, LVIII.
  • Wer nichts fürchtet ist nicht weniger mächtig, als der, den Alles fürchtet.
    • The man who fears nothing is not less powerful than he who is feared by every one.
    • Friedrich Schiller, Die Räuber, I. 1.
  • Wenn ich einmal zu fürchten angefangen
    Hab' ich zu fürchten aufgehört.
    • As soon as I have begun to fear I have ceased to fear.
    • Friedrich Schiller, Don Carlos, I. 6. 68.
  • Ich weiss, dass man vor leeren Schrecken zittert;
    Doch wahres Unglück bringt der falsche Wahn.
    • I know that oft we tremble at an empty terror, but the false phantasm brings a real misery.
    • Friedrich Schiller, Piccolomini, V. 1. 105.
  • Scared out of his seven senses.
  • Necesse est multos timeat, quem multi timent.
  • Si vultis nihil timere, cogitate omnia esse timenda.
    • If you wish to fear nothing, consider that everything is to be feared.
    • Seneca the Younger, Quæstionum Naturalium, VI. 2.
  • Tunc plurima versat
    Pessimus in dubiis augur timor.
    • Then fear, the very worst prophet in misfortunes, anticipates many evils.
    • Statius, Thebais, III. 5.
  • Primus in orbe deos fecit timor.
    • Fear in the world first created the gods.
    • Statius, Thebais, III. 661.
  • Do you think I was born in a wood to be afraid of an owl?
  • Etiam fortes viros subitis terreri.
    • Even the bravest men are frightened by sudden terrors.
    • Tacitus, Annales (AD 117), XV. 59.
  • Bello in si bella vistà anco è l'orrore,
    E di mezzo la tema esce il diletto.
    • Horror itself in that fair scene looks gay,
      And joy springs up e'en in the midst of fear.
    • Torquato Tasso, Gerusalemme, XX. 30.
  • Fear
    Stared in her eyes, and chalk'd her face.
  • Desponding Fear, of feeble fancies full,
    Weak and unmanly, loosens every power.
  • Obstupui, steteruntque comæ, et vox faucibus hæsit.
    • I was astounded, my hair stood on end, and my voice stuck in my throat.
    • Virgil, Æneid (29-19 BC), II. 774, and III. 48.
  • Degeneres animos timor arguit.
    • Fear is the proof of a degenerate mind.
    • Virgil, Æneid (29-19 BC), IV. 13.
  • Pedibus timor addidit alas.
    • Fear gave wings to his feet.
    • Virgil, Æneid (29-19 BC), VIII. 224.
  • Superman: I know it was you who sold those guns to those kids.
Arms dealer: I didn't sell them anything.
Superman: I can hear your heartbeat. I know you're lying.
Superman(Grabbing a gun off the wall): I just saw a young girl looking down the barrel of a gun screaming. She will remember it for the rest of her life.
Superman(Firing the gun at the terrified arms dealer then catching the bullet right in front of his face): Now, so will you.
  • Full twenty times was Peter feared,
    For once that Peter was respected.
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. ~ Marie Curie
It was a high counsel that I once heard given to a young person, — always do what you are afraid to do. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
Fear is the foundation of most governments. ~ John Adams
Let them hate, so long as they fear. ~ Lucius Accius
Everybody's afraid, but to do your job in combat you have to put your fear down. If you're not afraid in combat, you're either a fool or a liar. ~ George S. Patton IV

Corruption is an issue that adversely affects India's economy of central, state and local government agencies. Not only has it held the economy back from reaching new heights, but rampant corruption has stunted the country's development.[1] A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 92% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done.[2][3] In a study conducted in 2008, Transparency International reported that about 50% of Indians had first hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices.[4]

Transparency International's 2017 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 40th place out of 180 countries.[5]

The largest contributors to corruption are entitlement programs and social spending schemes enacted by the Indian government. Examples include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and the National Rural Health Mission.[6][7] Other areas of corruption include India's trucking industry which is forced to pay billions of rupees in bribes annually to numerous regulatory and police stops on interstate highways.[8]

The media has widely published allegations of corrupt Indian citizens stashing millions of rupees in Swiss banks. Swiss authorities denied these allegations, which were later proven in 2015–2016. The Indian media is largely controlled by extremely corrupt politicians and industrialists who play a major role by misleading the public with incorrect information and use the media for mud-slinging at political and business opponents.[9][10]

The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes.[11][12] There are significant variations in the level of corruption and in the government's efforts to reduce corruption across different areas of India.

Politics[edit]

See also: Booth capturing

Corruption in India is a problem that has serious implications for protecting the rule of law and ensuring access to justice. As of December 2009, 120 of India's 524 parliament members were accused of various crimes, under India's First Information Report procedure wherein anyone can allege another to have committed a crime.[13] Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved high level government officials, including Cabinet Ministers and Chief Ministers, such as the 2010 Commonwealth Games scam (₹70,000 crore (US$11 billion)), the Adarsh Housing Society scam, the Coal Mining Scam (₹1.86 lakh crore (US$28 billion)), the Mining Scandal in Karnataka and the Cash for Vote scams.

  • Sole philosophy pages on all norms and guidelines to clear mess, but now placed below plates.

Bureaucracy[edit]

A 2005 study done by the Transparency International in India found that more than 92% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribes or peddling influence to get services performed in a public office.[3] Taxes and bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers annually pay ₹222 crore (US$34 million) in bribes.[8][14]

Both government regulators and police share in bribe money, to the tune of 43% and 45% each, respectively. The en route stoppages at checkpoints and entry-points can take up to 11 hours per day. About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on roads by concerned authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and excise, octroi, and weighing and measuring departments are for extorting money. The loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important national concern; the number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if forced delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published report, the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip could be reduced by about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory stoppages to extract bribes were eliminated.[14][15][16]

A 2009 survey of the leading economies of Asia, revealed Indian bureaucracy to be not only the least efficient out of Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, China, Philippines and Indonesia, but that working with India's civil servants was a "slow and painful" process.[17]

Land and property[edit]

See also: Illegal housing in India

Officials are alleged to steal state property. In cities and villages throughout India, groups of municipal and other government officials, elected politicians, judicial officers, real estate developers and law enforcement officials, acquire, develop and sell land in illegal ways.[18] Such officials and politicians are very well protected by the immense power and influence they possess. Apart from this, slum-dwellers who are allotted houses under several housing schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana, Rajiv Awas Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna etc., rent out these houses to others, to earn money due to severe unemployment and lack of a steady source of income.

Tendering processes and awarding contracts[edit]

A 2006 report claimed state-funded construction activities in Uttar Pradesh, such as road building were dominated by construction mafias, consisting of cabals of corrupt public works officials, materials suppliers, politicians and construction contractors.[19]

Problems caused by corruption in government funded projects are not limited to the state of Uttar Pradesh. According to The World Bank, aid programmes are beset by corruption, bad administration and under-payments. As an example, the report cites that only 40% of grain handed out for the poor reaches its intended target. The World Bank study finds that the public distribution programmes and social spending contracts have proven to be a waste due to corruption.[20]

For example, the government implemented the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on 25 August 2005. The Central government outlay for this welfare scheme is ₹400 crore (US$61 million) in FY 2010–2011.[21] After 5 years of implementation, in 2011, the programme was widely criticised as no more effective than other poverty reduction programmes in India. Despite its best intentions, MGNREGA faces the challenges of corrupt officials reportedly pocketing money on behalf of fake rural employees, poor quality of the programme infrastructure, and unintended destructive effect[clarification needed] on poverty.[7][22]

Hospitals and health care[edit]

In Government Hospitals, corruption is associated with non-availability/duplication of medicines, obtaining admission, consultations with doctors and receiving diagnostic services.[3]

National Rural Health Mission is another health care-related government programme that has been subject to large scale corruption allegations. This social spending and entitlement programme hoped to improve health care delivery across rural India. Managed since 2005 by the Ministry of Health, the Indian government mandated a spending of ₹2.77 lakh crore (US$42 billion) in 2004–2005, and increased it annually to be about 1% of India's gross domestic product. The National Rural Health Mission programme has been clouded by a large-scale corruption scandal in which high-level government appointed officials were arrested, several of whom died under mysterious circumstances including one in prison. Corruption, waste and fraud-related losses from this government programme has been alleged to be ₹1 lakh crore (US$15 billion).[23][24][25][6]

Science and technology[edit]

CSIR, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, has been flagged in ongoing efforts to root out corruption in India.[26] Established with the directive to do translational research and create real technologies, CSIR has been accused of transforming into a ritualistic, overly-bureaucratic organisation that does little more than churn out papers.[27][28]

There are many issues facing Indian scientists, with some, such as MIT systems scientist VA Shiva Ayyadurai, calling for transparency, a meritocratic system, and an overhaul of the bureaucratic agencies that oversee science and technology.[29][30][31] Sumit Bhaduri stated, "The challenges of turning Indian science into part of an innovation process are many. Many competent Indian scientists aspire to be ineffectual administrators (due to administrative power and political patronage), rather than do the kind of science that makes a difference".[32] Prime minister Manmohan Singh spoke at the 99th Indian Science Congress and commented on the state of the sciences in India, after an advisory council informed him there were problems with "the overall environment for innovation and creative work" and a "war-like" approach was needed.[33]

Income tax department[edit]

There have been several cases of collusion involving officials of the Income Tax Department of India for preferential tax treatment and relaxed prosecutions in exchange for bribes.[34][35]

Preferential award of mineral resources[edit]

See also: Illegal mining in India

In August 2011, an iron ore mining scandal became a media focus in India. In September 2011, elected member of Karnataka's legislative assembly Janardhana Reddy, was arrested on charges of corruption and illegal mining of iron ore in his home state. It was alleged that his company received preferential allotment of resources, organised and exported billions of dollars' worth of iron ore to Chinese companies in recent years without paying any royalty to the state government exchequer of Karnataka or the central government of India, and that these Chinese companies made payment to shell companies registered in Caribbean and north Atlantic tax havens controlled by Reddy.[36][37]

It was also alleged that corrupt government officials cooperated with Reddy, starting from government officials in charge of regulating mining to government officials in charge of regulating port facilities and shipping. These officials received monthly bribes in exchange for enabling the illegal export of illegally mined iron ore to China. Such scandals have led to a demand in India for consensually driven action plan to eradicate the piracy of India's mineral resources by an illegal, politically corrupt government officials-business nexus, removal of incentives for illegal mining, and the creation of incentives for legal mining and domestic use of iron ore and steel manufacturing.[36][37]

Driver licensing[edit]

A study conducted between 2004 and 2005 found that India's driver licensing procedure was a hugely distorted bureaucratic process and allows drivers to be licensed despite their low driving ability through promoting the usage of agents. Individuals with the willingness to pay make a significant payment above the official fee and most of these extra payments are made to agents, who act as an intermediary between bureaucrats and applicants.[38]

The average licensee paid Rs 1,080, approximately 2.5 times the official fee of Rs 450, in order to obtain a license. On average, those who hired agents had a lower driving ability, with agents helping unqualified drivers obtain licenses and bypass the legally required driving examination. Among the surveyed individuals, approximately 60% of the license holders did not even take the licensing exam and 54% of those license holders failed an independent driving test.[39]

Agents are the channels of corruption in this bureaucratic driver licensing system, facilitating access to licenses among those who are unqualified to drive. Some of the failures of this licensing system are caused by corrupt bureaucrats who collaborate with agents by creating additional barriers within the system against those who did not hire agents.[38]

Trends[edit]

Professor Bibek Debroy and Laveesh Bhandari claim in their book Corruption in India: The DNA and RNA that public officials in India may be cornering as much as ₹921 billion (US$14 billion), or 1.26 per cent of the GDP through corruption.[15] The book claims most bribery is in government delivered services and the transport and real estate industries.

Bribery and corruption are pervasive, but some areas tend to more issues than others. A 2013 EY (Ernst & Young) Study[40] reports the industries perceived to be the most vulnerable to corruption as: Infrastructure & Real Estate, Metals & Mining, Aerospace & Defense, and Power & Utilities. There are a range of specific factors that make a sector more susceptible to bribery and corruption risks than others. High use of middlemen, large value contracts, and liasioning activities etc. drive the depth, volume and frequency of corrupt practices in vulnerable sectors.

A 2011 KPMG study reports India's real estate, telecommunications and government-run social development projects as the three top sectors plagued by corruption. The study found India's defence, the information technology industry and energy sectors to be the most competitive and least corruption prone sectors.[11]

CMS India claims in its 2010 India Corruption Study report that socio-economically weaker sections of Indian society are the most adversely affected by government corruption. These include the rural and urban poor, although the study claims that nationwide perception of corruption has decreased between 2005 and 2010. Over the 5-year period, a significantly greater number of people surveyed from the middle and poorest classes in all parts of India claimed government corruption had dropped over time, and that they had fewer direct experiences with bribery demands.[41] Whereas in reality corruption has increased ten folds since 2010 and continues to grow relentlessly on a daily basis.

The table below compares the perceived anti-corruption effort across some of the major states in India.[12] A rising index implies higher anti-corruption effort and falling corruption. According to this table, the states of Bihar and Gujarat have experienced significant improvements in their anti-corruption efforts, while conditions have worsened in the states of Assam and West Bengal. Consistent with the results in this table, in 2012 a BBC News report claimed the state of Bihar has transformed in recent years to become the least corrupt state in India.[42]

Black money[edit]

Main article: Indian black money

Black money refers to money that is not fully or legitimately the property of the 'owner'. A government white paper on black money in India suggests two possible sources of black money in India;[9] the first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism and corruption, all of which are illegal in India and secondly, wealth that may have been generated through lawful activity but accumulated by failure to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit financial flows across international borders, such as deposits in tax haven countries.

A November 2010 report from the Washington-based Global Financial Integrity estimates that over a 60-year period, India lost US$213 billion in illicit financial flows beginning in 1948; adjusted for inflation, this is estimated to be $462 billion in 2010, or about $8 billion per year ($7 per capita per year). The report also estimated the size of India's underground economy at approximately US$640 billion at the end of 2008 or roughly 50% of the nation's GDP.[43]

Indian black money in Switzerland[edit]

India was ranked 38th by money held by its citizens in Swiss banks in 2004 but then improved its ranking by slipping to 61st position in 2015 and further improved its position by slipping to 75th position in 2016.[44][45] According to a 2010 The Hindu article, unofficial estimates indicate that Indians had over US$1,456 billion in black money stored in Swiss banks (approximately US$1.4 trillion).[46] While some news reports claimed that data provided by the Swiss Banking Association[47] Report (2006) showed India has more black money than the rest of the world combined,[48][49] a more recent report quoted the SBA's Head of International Communications as saying that no such official Swiss Banking Association statistics exist.[50]

Another report said that Indian-owned Swiss bank account assets are worth 13 times the country's national debt. These allegations have been denied by Swiss Bankers Association. James Nason of Swiss Bankers Association in an interview about alleged black money from India, holds that "The (black money) figures were rapidly picked up in the Indian media and in Indian opposition circles, and circulated as gospel truth. However, this story was a complete fabrication. The Swiss Bankers Association never published such a report. Anyone claiming to have such figures (for India) should be forced to identify their source and explain the methodology used to produce them."[10][51]

In a separate study, Dev Kar of Global Financial Integrity concludes, "Media reports circulating in India that Indian nationals held around US$1.4 trillion in illicit external assets are widely off the mark compared to the estimates found by his study." Kar claims the amounts are significantly smaller, only about 1.5% of India's GDP on average per annum basis, between 1948 and 2008. This includes corruption, bribery and kickbacks, criminal activities, trade mispricing and efforts to shelter wealth by Indians from India's tax authorities.[43]

According to a third report, published in May 2012, Swiss National Bank estimates that the total amount of deposits in all Swiss banks, at the end of 2010, by citizens of India were CHF 1.95 billion (₹92.95 billion (US$1.4 billion)). The Swiss Ministry of External Affairs has confirmed these figures upon request for information by the Indian Ministry of External Affairs. This amount is about 700-fold less than the alleged $1.4 trillion in some media reports.[9] The report also provided a comparison of the deposits held by Indians and by citizens of other nations in Swiss banks. Total deposits held by citizens of India constitute only 0.13 per cent of the total bank deposits of citizens of all countries. Further, the share of Indians in the total bank deposits of citizens of all countries in Swiss banks has reduced from 0.29 per cent in 2006 to 0.13 per cent in 2010.

Domestic black money[edit]

Indian companies are reportedly misusing public trusts for money laundering. India has no centralised repository—like the registrar of companies for corporates—of information on public trusts.[52]

2016 Evasion attempts after note ban[edit]

In Gujarat, Delhi and many other major cities, sales of gold increased on 9 November, with an increased 20% to 30% premium surging the price as much as ₹45,000 (US$690) from the ruling price of ₹31,900 (US$490) per 10 grams (0.35 oz).[53][54]

Authorities of Sri Jalakanteswarar temple at Vellore discovered cash worth ₹4.4 million (US$67,000) from the temple Hundi.[55]

  • Multiple bank transactions

There have also been reports of people circumventing the restrictions imposed on exchange transactions and attempting to convert black money into white by making multiple transactions at different bank branches.[56] People were also getting rid of large amounts of banned currency by sending people in groups to exchange their money at banks.[57] In response, the government announced that it would start marking customers with indelible ink. This was in addition to other measures proposed to ensure that the exchange transactions are carried out only once by each person.[58][59][60] On 17 November, the government reduced the exchange amount to ₹2,000 (US$31) to discourage attempts to convert black money into legitimate money.

As soon as the demonetisation was announced, it was observed by the Indian Railways authorities that a large number of people started booking tickets particularly in classes 1A and 2A for the longest distance possible, to get rid of unaccounted for cash. A senior official said, "On November 13, 42.7 million passengers were nationally booked across all classes. Of these, only 1,209 were 1A and 16,999 for 2A. It is a sharp dip from the number of passengers booked on November 9, when 27,237 passengers had booked tickets in 1A and 69,950 in 2A."[61]

The Railways Ministry and the Railway Board responded swiftly and decided that cancellation and refund of tickets of value ₹10,000 and above will not be allowed by any means involving cash. The payment can only be through cheque/electronic payment. Tickets above ₹10,000 can be refunded by filing ticket deposit receipt only on surrendering the original ticket. A copy of the PAN card must be submitted for any cash transaction above ₹50,000. The railway claimed that since the Railway Board on 10 November imposed a number of restrictions to book and cancel tickets, the number of people booking 1A and 2A tickets came down.[61][62]

  • Municipal and local tax payments

As the use of the demonetised notes had been allowed by the government for the payment of municipal and local body taxes, leading to people using the demonetised ₹500 and ₹1,000 notes to pay large amounts of outstanding and advance taxes. As a result, revenue collections of the local civic bodies jumped. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation reported collecting about ₹1.6 billion (US$25 million) in cash payments of outstanding and advance taxes within 4 days.[63]

Income Tax officials raided multiple branches of Axis Bank and found bank officials involved in acts of money laundering.[64][65][66]

Business and corruption[edit]

Public servants have very wide discretionary powers offering the opportunity to extort undue payments from companies and ordinary citizens. The awarding of public contracts is notoriously corrupt, especially at the state level. Scandals involving high-level politicians have highlighted the payment of kickbacks in the healthcare, IT and military sectors. The deterioration of the overall efficiency of the government, protection of property rights, ethics and corruption as well as undue influence on government and judicial decisions has resulted in a more difficult business environment.[citation needed]

Judiciary[edit]

According to Transparency International[unreliable source?], Judicial corruption in India is attributable to factors such as "delays in the disposal of cases, shortage of judges and complex procedures, all of which are exacerbated by a preponderance of new laws".[67] Over the years there have been numerous allegations against judges, and in 2011 Soumitra Sen, a former judge at the Kolkata High Court became the first judge in India to be impeached by the Rajya Sabha, (Upper House of the Indian Parliament) for misappropriation of funds.[68]

Anti-corruption efforts[edit]

Right to Information Act[edit]

Main article: Right to Information Act

The 2005 Right to Information Act required government officials to provide information requested by citizens or face punitive action, as well as the computerisation of services and the establishment of vigilance commissions. This considerably reduced corruption and opened up avenues to redress grievances.[3]

Right to public services legislation[edit]

Main article: Right to Public Services legislation

Right to Public Services legislation, which has been enacted in 19 states of India, guarantee time bound delivery of services for various public services rendered by the government to citizen and provides mechanisms for punishing the errant public servant who is deficient in providing the service stipulated under the statute.[69] Right to Service legislation is meant to reduce corruption among the government officials and to increase transparency and public accountability.[70]

Anti-corruption laws in India[edit]

Public servants in India can be imprisoned for several years and penalised for corruption under the:

Punishment for bribery in India can range from six months to seven years.

India is also a signatory to the United Nations Convention against Corruption since 2005 (ratified 2011). The Convention covers a wide range of acts of corruption and also proposes certain preventive policies.[71]

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 which came into force from 16 January 2014, seeks to provide for the establishment of the institution of Lokpal to inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries in India.[72][73]

Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011, which provides a mechanism to investigate alleged corruption and misuse of power by public servants and also protect anyone who exposes alleged wrongdoing in government bodies, projects and offices, has received the assent of the President of India on 9 May 2014, and (as of 2 August) is pending for notification by the Central Government.[74][75]

At present there are no legal provisions to check graft in the private sector in India. Government has proposed amendments in existing acts and certain new bills for checking corruption in private sector. Big-ticket corruption is mainly witnessed in the operations of large commercial or corporate entities. In order to prevent bribery on supply side, it is proposed that key managerial personnel of companies' and also the company shall be held liable for offering bribes to gain undue benefits.[citation needed]

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 provides that the properties of corrupt public servants shall be confiscated. However, the Government is considering incorporating provisions for confiscation or forfeiture of the property of corrupt public servants into the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 to make it more self-contained and comprehensive.[40]

A committee headed by the Chairman of Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT), has been constituted to examine ways to strengthen laws to curb generation of black money in India, its illegal transfer abroad, and its recovery. "The Committee shall examine the existing legal and administrative framework to deal with the menace of generation of black money through illegal means including inter-alia the following: 1. Declaring wealth generated illegally as national asset; 2. Enacting/amending laws to confiscate and recover such assets; and 3. Providing for exemplary punishment against its perpetrators." (Source: 2013 EY report on Bribery & Corruption)

The Companies Act, 2013, contains certain provisions to regulate frauds by corporations including increased penalties for frauds, giving more powers to the Serious Fraud Investigation Office, mandatory responsibility of auditors to reveal frauds, and increased responsibilities of independent directors.[76] The Companies Act, 2013 also provides for mandatory vigil mechanisms which allow directors and employees to report concerns and whistleblower protection mechanism for every listed company and any other companies which accepts deposits from public or has taken loans more than 50 crore rupees from banks and financial institutions. This intended to avoid accounting scandals such as the Satyam scandal which have plagued India.[77] It replaces The Companies Act, 1956 which was proven outmoded in terms of handling 21st century problems.[78]

In 2015, Parliament passed the Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Bill, 2015 to curb and impose penalties on black money hoarded abroad. The Act has received the assent of the President of India on 26 May 2015. It came into effect from 1 July 2015.

Anti-corruption police and courts[edit]

The Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation, Central Vigilance Commission and Central Bureau of Investigation all deal with anti-corruption initiatives. Certain states such as Andhra Pradesh (Anti-Corruption Bureau, Andhra Pradesh) and Karnataka (Lokayukta) also have their own anti-corruption agencies and courts.[79][80]

Andhra Pradesh's Anti Corruption Bureau (ACB) has launched a large scale investigation in the "cash-for-bail" scam.[81] CBI court judge Talluri Pattabhirama Rao was arrested on 19 June 2012 for taking a bribe to grant bail to former Karnataka Minister Gali Janardhan Reddy, who was allegedly amassing assets disproportionate to his known sources of income. Investigation revealed that India Cements (one of India's largest cement companies) had been investing in Reddy's businesses in return for government contracts.[82] A case has also been opened against seven other individuals under the Indian Penal Code and the Prevention of Corruption Act.[81]

Civic anti-corruption organisations[edit]

A variety of organisations have been created in India to actively fight against corrupt government and business practices. Notable organisations include:

  • [Bharat Swabhiman Trust], established by Ramdev, has campaigned against black money and corruption for a decade.[when?]
  • 5th Pillar is most known for the creation of the zero rupee note, a valueless note designed to be given to corrupt officials when they request bribes.[citation needed]
  • India Against Corruption was a popular movement active during 2011–12 that received much media attention. Among its prominent public faces were Arvind Kejriwal, Kiran Bedi and Anna Hazare. Kejriwal went on to form the Aam Aadmi Party and Hazare established Jan Tantra Morcha.[83]
  • Jaago Re! One Billion Votes was an organisation founded by Tata Tea and Janaagraha to increase youth voter registration.[84] They have since expanded their work to include other social issues, including corruption.[85]
  • Association for Social Transparency, Rights and Action (ASTRA) is an NGO focused on grass-roots work to fight corruption in Karnataka.
  • The Lok Satta Movement, has transformed itself from a civil organisation to a full-fledged political party, the Lok Satta Party. The party has fielded candidates in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Bangalore. In 2009, it obtained its first elected post, when Jayaprakash Narayan won the election for the Kukatpally Assembly Constituency in Andhra Pradesh.

Electoral Reforms[edit]

See also: Electoral reform in India

A number of ideas have been in discussion to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of electoral processes in India.

Factors contributing to corruption in India[edit]

In a 2004 report on Corruption in India,[11] one of the world's largest audit and compliance firms KPMG notes several issues that encourage corruption in India. The report suggests high taxes and excessive regulation bureaucracy as a major cause; India has high marginal tax rates and numerous regulatory bodies with the power to stop any citizen or business from going about their daily affairs.[11][86]

This power of Indian authorities to search and question individuals creates opportunities for corrupt public officials to extract bribes—each individual or business decides if the effort required for due process and the cost of delay is worth paying the bribe demanded. In cases of high taxes, paying off the corrupt official is cheaper than the tax. This, according to the report, is one major cause of corruption in India and 150 other countries across the world. In the real estate industry, the high capital gains tax in India encourages large-scale corruption. The KPMG report claims that the correlation between high real estate taxes and corruption is high in India as it is other countries including the developed economies; this correlation has been true in modern times as well as throughout centuries of human history in various cultures.[11][86]

The desire to pay lower taxes than those demanded by the state explains the demand side of corruption. The net result is that the corrupt officials collect bribes, the government fails to collect taxes for its own budget, and corruption grows. The report suggests regulatory reforms, process simplification and lower taxes as means to increase tax receipts and reduce causes of corruption.[11][86]

In addition to tax rates and regulatory burdens, the KPMG report claims corruption results from opaque process and paperwork on the part of the government. Lack of transparency allows room for manoeuvre for both demanders and suppliers of corruption. Whenever objective standards and transparent processes are missing, and subjective opinion driven regulators and opaque/hidden processes are present, conditions are ripe for corruption.[11][87]

Vito Tanzi in an International Monetary Fund study suggests that in India, like other countries in the world, corruption is caused by excessive regulations and authorisation requirements, complicated taxes and licensing systems, mandated spending programmes, lack of competitive free markets, monopoly of certain goods and service providers by government controlled institutions, bureaucracy, lack of penalties for corruption of public officials, and lack of transparent laws and processes.[12][88] A Harvard University study finds these to be some of the causes of corruption and underground economy in India.[89]

Impact of corruption[edit]

Loss of credibility[edit]

In a study on Bribery and Corruption in India conducted in 2013[40] by global professional services firm Ernst & Young (EY), a majority of the survey respondents from PE firms said that a company operating in a sector which is perceived as highly corrupt may lose ground when it comes to fair valuation of its business, as investors bargain hard and factor in the cost of corruption at the time of transaction.

According to a report by KPMG, "high-level corruption and scams are now threatening to derail the country's its credibility and [its] economic boom".[90]

Economic loss[edit]

Corruption may lead to further bureaucratic delay and inefficiency if corrupted bureaucrats introduce red tape in order to extort more bribes.[91] Such inadequacies in institutional efficiency could affect growth indirectly by lowering the private marginal product of capital and investment rate.[92] Levine and Renelt showed that investment rate is a robust determinant of economic growth.[93]

Bureaucratic inefficiency also affects growth directly through misallocation of investments in the economy.[94] Additionally, corruption results in lower economic growth for a given level of income.[92]

Lower corruption, higher growth rates[edit]

If corruption levels in India were reduced to levels in developed economies such as Singapore or the United Kingdom, India's GDP growth rate could increase at a higher rate annually. C. K. Prahalad estimates the lost opportunity caused by corruption in terms of investment, growth and jobs for India is over US$50 billion a year.[1]

See also[edit]

Anti-corruption:

General:

References[edit]

A jewellery store in a shopping mall with a notice "We accept ₹500 and ₹1000 notes", even after they were no longer valid banknotes.

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