Somatogenic View Of Abnormal Behavior Essay

  • 1. 

    Why is it important to take into account cultural relativism?

  • 2. 

    What are the criteria for psychological abnormality?

  • 3. 

    Match the best.

  • 4. 

    What were Hippocrates' 4 humors called?

  • 5. 

    Trephining was...

    • A. 

      Used during the renaissance era.

    • B. 

      Using a stone instrument to cut a piece of skull out.

    • C. 

      A means of eliminating people with abnormalities.

    • D. 

      Popular amongst African cultures.

  • 6. 

    Asylums were meant to be ________ and __________ places.

  • 7. 

    During the middle ages, to treat abnormal behaviors, people...

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Thought demons were the cause.

    • D. 

      Wanted to eliminate the mentally ill.

  • 8. 

    In state hospitals, the moral treatment of the mentally ill...

    • A. 

      Cured thousands of people.

    • B. 

      Focused on providing good care.

    • C. 

      Ended because of overcrowded (and filthy) hospitals.

    • D. 

      Was shocking to most people, so it was destroyed.

  • 9. 

    The somatogenic perspective began in during the 20th century.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 10. 

    Psychoanalysis, hypnotism, and outpatient therapy were formed because of the _________ perspective.

  • 11. 

    Prevention programs used __________.

    • A. 

      Research from various cultures

    • B. 

      Information about individual patients

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 12. 

    Positive psychology was aimed at encouraging positive feelings and behaviors.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 13. 

    Managed care is...

    • A. 

      A type of insurance coverage.

    • B. 

      Used to help manage a patients behaviors.

    • C. 

      A research procedure used to observe a patient.

    • D. 

      The most popular form of behavioral care.

  • 14. 

    ___________ stated that insurance companies had to provide the same care to patients with mental health and medical health problems.

  • 15. 

    Multiculturism emegered due to more cultures.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 16. 

    ___________ try(ies) to understand how race, gender, ethnicity, and culture affect behaviors.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 17. 

    Match the following with the best description.

    • D. Quasi-Experimental Design
  • 18. 

    Pros of case studies...

    • A. 

      Is that they pave the way for new discoveries.

    • B. 

      Is that they offer a wide range of test subjects, creating a generalized result.

    • C. 

      Is that clinicians can learn more about unusual problems and techniques.

    • D. 

      Is that they support or challenge theories.

  • 19. 

    Cons of case studies...

    • A. 

      Is that observers can be biased.

    • B. 

      Is that they rely on subjective evidence.

    • C. 

      Is that they display vague results.

    • D. 

      Is that participants are not truthful.

  • 20. 

    Pros of correlational method...

    • A. 

      Is that clinicians are able to learn about unusual disorders.

    • B. 

      Is that they use statistic analysis to test accuracy.

    • C. 

      Is that researchers perform this method on their patient.

    • D. 

      Is that results are easily generalized.

  • 21. 

    Cons of correlational method...

    • A. 

      Is that they are found to be very inaccurate.

    • B. 

      Is that results are significantly different for different ages.

    • C. 

      Is that the results are approximate.

    • D. 

      Is that the results don't explain the relationship of what was measured.

  • 22. 

    3 important criteria included in experiments to guard against confounds...

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 23. 

    Match the following.

  • 24. 

    Matched control participants (experimental participants are matched with the control participants by age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, type of neighborhood, or other characteristics) are used in this type of experiment.

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Quasi-experimental design

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 25. 

    More then one type of clinical investigation is better to investigate a disorder.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 26. 

    A general understanding of the nature, causes and treatments of abnormal psychological functioning in the form of laws or principles.

    • A. 

      Idiographic understanding

    • B. 

    • C. 

  • 27. 

    An understanding of the behavior or a particular individual.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Idiographic understanding

  • 28. 

    Nomothetic is...

    • A. 

      When clinical researchers try to develop broad laws and principles of abnormal functioning.

    • B. 

      When researchers attempt to explain certain attributes about a disorder.

    • C. 

      When clinical researchers believe that abnormal functioning is due to imbalances of neurotransmitters.

  • 29. 

    Idiographic is...

    • A. 

      When clinicians seek to learn more about unusual disorders.

    • B. 

      How researchers determine if a certain trait is abnormal.

    • C. 

      When clinicians use individual information about a client to understand their behaviors.

  • 30. 

    Match.

    • B. Unstructured Interview
    • D. Semi-Structured Interview
  • 31. 

    Clinical Interviews are usually very valid and reliable.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 32. 

    The value of clinical interviews depends on...

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 33. 

    Limitations of clinical interviews...

    • A. 

      The information is usually vague.

    • B. 

      The client may intentionally be misleading.

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Interviewers may be biased.

  • 34. 

    Mental status exam measures a client's...

    • A. 

      Awareness, attention span, and memory.

    • B. 

      Orientation with regard to time and place, judgement, and insight.

    • C. 

      Intellectual capacity and ability to retain information.

    • D. 

      Personal history, family history, and current symptoms.

  • 35. 

    Disadvantages of unstructured interviews...

    • A. 

      Asks detailed questions, leaving opportunity to miss important information.

    • B. 

      Makes it difficult to get other pieces of information.

    • C. 

      Has several questions, causing distraction to clients.

    • D. 

      Client's usually deny having any problems.

  • 36. 

    Psychodynamic and humanistic clinicians tend to use...

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 37. 

    Behavioral and cognitive clinicians tend to use...

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 38. 

    Clinical interviews are generally good at gathering information about a client to assist in diagnoses and treatment plans.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 39. 

    __________: A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

  • 40. 

    Match.

    • A. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • E. Social Skills Inventories
  • 41. 

    Match the scales of the MMPI.

    • E. Masculinity-Femininity
  • 42. 

    The advantages of projective tests are...

    • A. 

      Client's are thought to "project" themselves onto the test.

    • B. 

    • C. 

      They provide answers to unasked questions needed for a diagnoses.

    • D. 

      They are used as supplementary insights.

  • 43. 

    The disadvantages of projective tests are...

    • A. 

    • B. 

      They are not very reliable.

    • C. 

      They are not very interactive.

    • D. 

      They focus too much on the client's personal information.

  • 44. 

    Personality inventories compared to projective tests...

    • A. 

      They have objective scoring, and shot time to administer.

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Projective tests are greater validity.

    • D. 

      They have better test-retest reliability.

  • 45. 

    Personality inventories are not highly valid and have cultural limitations.

    • A. 

    • B. 

  • 46. 

    _________ inventories are not tested for accuracy and consistency because they are mostly used when need arises.

  • 47. 

    Tests are more likely to be reliable or valid if they...

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Have predictive validity.

    • C. 

      Have high test-retest reliability.

    • D. 

      Are administered 2 weeks apart.

  • Read this article to learn about how Abnormal Behaviour has been classified:

    In the common population there are a small group of people which constitute about 10 per cent of the general people that deviate from the normal in a pathological direction. Such people are emotionally unstable, have disorganised personality, various defects in character and above all they are not able to adjust with themselves or with their environment.

    These deviants otherwise known as abnormals are classified into several categories. While classifying the abnormal behaviour one has to deal with a wide range of maladaptive responses. Besides, the symptoms of different mental diseases may be very similar but the causes may be quite different.

    Two types of classifications presented by Page and Coleman will be discussed here:

    Page (1976) has classified the deviants into 4 major categories such as psychoneurotic, psychotic, mentally defective and anti-social.

    Psychoneuroses:

    Page (1976) holds that Psychoneuroses are relatively mild personality disorders that distress and inconvenience the patient, but do not disrupt his social adjustments and interfere with his every day activities to the point of necessitating supervision and compulsory commitment to a mental hospital.

    The patient does not loose contact with the reality and his personality remains intact. Psychoneurotic patients are aware of what they are doing. They understand their mental troubles and difficulties. They can distinguish right from wrong. Their behaviour is not a source of danger to others and rarely offensive. Such illness may or may not impair their output or performance.

    Neurotics do not differ from normality in kind, but only in degree. No clear distinction can be made between the normal and the neurotic. Most of us, the normals, can be said neurotics at times. Sometimes, we become sorry, upset, depressed and demonstrate various neurotic symptoms. But this is only temporary while neuroses is permanent.

    The chief characteristics of a psychoneurotic is anxiety. This anxiety may either be directly felt by the organism or it may be free floating. The neurotic may control them consciously or unconsciously through the use of various defence mechanisms.

    Psychoneurotic reactions are commonest modes of faulty response to the stresses, strains and frustrations of life. The inner tensions and anxieties arising out of confused and unsatisfactory experiences either during the early childhood or later on hinder and affect the future adaptations of the individual. Consequently the inter personal relationship of the neurotic becomes pathological.

    Excessive use of defence mechanisms, such as repression, dissociation and various maladaptive behaviour reduces peace and happiness considerably. Thus, neuroses in short is a kind of mild mental disease of which the patient is conscious. He never loses touch with the reality and like normal human beings maintains his social relationship.

    A psychoneurotic patient may be highly disturbed by a morbid fear of travelling in a train or a bus or he may be unable to go further a few yards from his own door, but he does not know why.

    Once a student studying in the inter science class came to the author for psychological counselling and advice. His primary trouble was that for the last one year he was having this morbid desire to wash his hands all the times as he felt that his hands are dirty and full of germs which might lead to infectious diseases.

    He further stated that the more he washed his hand he had a stronger desire to wash further and further. This thought was so persistent that he could not concentrate in his studies and whenever he started writing notes, he felt that the notes were full of germs. So he could not proceed on his writing either.

    The author came across a gentleman who was very much interested in Freud and psychoanalysis. He used to take a cup of tea in a very peculiar manner. First he would disinfect the border of the cup and then will take the tea without touching the border of the cup. Not only that, he washes his hand, handkerchief etc. many times a day.

    A neurotic becomes irritable and always complains of chronic fatigue. In such people, the harmony of the Id, Ego and Super ego is broken.

    A neurotic is distinguishable from the normal except in that though the reactions of normals and neurotics are same under emotional stress, the reactions of the normals are appropriate to the situation and are of short duration.

    On the contrary, the reactions of the Psychoneurotic are not appropriate to the actual situation and such reactions may continue persistently for months and years. In case of normal person, however, reaction to an emotional shock is temporary. For instance, following the death of the only son, a normal person may not be able to tolerate the strain and adjust with the circumstances regaining control over himself and after a short period the symptoms disappear, while a neurotic may suffer permanently and his symptoms do not disappear without treatment.

    However, in a neurotic there is no gross disorganization of personality, intellect and social habits and no significant organic pathology. Rapport is maintained with reality and society. Speech and thought processes are logical and coherent.

    Behaviour is in conformity with social demands. Such people do not interfere with the general welfare of others. The neurotic does not lose touch with reality. In short, the neurotic does not require hospitalization,

    A neurotic is an accepted, self supporting, participating member of his community free to come and go as he pleases. He is also sensitive to changes in the external environment. Normal individuals have fear for thieves, germs and diseases. But they do not wash their hands persistently and do not disinfect or sterilise their glass and utensils before taking water or preparing meals like the neurotics.

    The normal’s of course take reasonable precaution to avoid infection. A neurotic similarly may show morbid fear to a spider and the cause of the fear is not known to him. But to a normal person, the causes of his fear are always known.

    Anxiety neuroses, Hysteria, Phobia, obsessive compulsive neuroses etc. come under this type of mental disease.

    Psychoses:

    Psychoses is a severe form of mental disease. Different forms of popular insanity come under this category. The chief symptoms of a psychotic involve extreme personality disorganization and loss of contact with reality.

    A psychotic is sharply distinguished from the normal individual by the bizarreness of his actions, the incoherence of his speech, the absurdity of his hallucinations and his general mental confusion. A psychotic experiences hallucinations of different types such as taste and smell, sound and touch. Hallucinatory gratifi­cation of needs of the psychotic patient shows the characteristics of the infant who has not been able to distinguish between the inner and the outer world.

    The psychotic is specially marked by loss of contact with the social world. He withdraws from reality to his private world. His behaviour and thoughts are unaffected by rules of logic. His behaviour is too unreasonable and inappropriate to be understood by normal men.

    Thus, in short, psychoses refers to severe mental disorders that disintegrate the personality and disrupts the individual’s interpersonal as well as social relationship. Contrary to the neurotics, it is necessary to hospitalize psychotics as they are unable to take care of themselves. Besides, they become a danger and threat to the welfare of the society by creating disturbances, being hostile and violent. They are insane as recognized by law and not legally responsible for whatever action they commit. According to Freud, the chief difference between neuroses and psychoses lies in regression and disorganization of personality.

    This category of mental abnormality includes affective reactions, paranoid reactions and schizophrenic reactions. All the psychological functions like perception, learning, memory and imagination become pathological. But in case of neuroses only a part of the personality, i.e., the emotional aspect is affected while in Psychotics there is total disintegration of personality.

    A psychotic distorts reality and becomes disoriented towards persons and things in the external world. He has no proper idea or knowledge of time and place which make his personality more and more disordered than a neurotic. Further, a psychotic unlike the neurotic docs not know what is wrong with his behaviour and responses.

    According to Freud, the chief difference between neuroses and psychoses lies in egression, and disorganization of personality. In a psychotic .there is severe conflict between the Id, Ego and the Super ego and his personality is permanently impaired.

    Page (1976) remarks that in psychoses; normal inhibitions and cultural restraints are several and the patient indulges in whims and phantansis unchecked by rules of logic, common sense and social pressure.

    A psychotic’s behaviour is coloured by delusions and hallucinations which he considers to be very real. Because of these hallucinations and delusions he claims to be an emperor, a cinema star, a multi-millionaire or above all God.

    The common people mock at him when he talks like an emperor or behaves like a royal king; but he does not understand the cause of their mockery. In his emotional reactions, the psychotic does not show any regard for reality. There may not be any apparent relation between the stimulus and their response.

    A news which causes laughter among all, may bring tears or sadness in the psychotics. Without any apparent cause, they become suddenly excited, depressed, violent and irritable. Thus, a psychotic patient is more often than not confused his thought process is completely disorganized, retarded and ineffective. His memory fails and he cannot grasp and understand new materials. In short, there is permanent impairment of total personality.

    A psychotic lives in his private world. Real world, its rules, regulations, standards and norms have no implication, no value for him. A psychotic takes his dreams, imaginations and delusions as real and strangely enough strongly believes that they are real.

    If he imagines that he is the President of India or Maharaja of Jaipur, he strongly believes that he is so and so and behaves accordingly. No amount of persuasion will help him to give up this belief which is only a delusion.

    To a normal person, a dream is a dream. But to a psychotic a dream is a reality, a fantastic imagination is a practical and true fact.

    Case history. An old lady developed a morbid fear that there is a constant sound inside her stomach created by some spirits. At times, she was suffering from severe depression and guilt feeling and made many unsuccessful attempts to kill herself.

    Thus, there is a long and significant gap between a normal and a psychotic, a neurotic and a psychotic.

    Mental retardation:

    Page (1976) defines mentally retardeds as a variety of individuals who because of subnormal and retarded mental development are unable as children to profit from regular school instructions and as adults are capable of adequate self management or self support.

    The mentally deficient are also called feebleminded or mentally defectives. They are the liabilities and responsibilities of the society. Some even take them as a burden of the society. With training and guidance they may show some improvement, but up to a limit after which they do not gain or learn from training, instruction or education.

    This category consists of severe, moderate and mild mental retardation. In such cases, low level of intelligence has been there since birth and such types do not significantly indicate any brain disease. A mentally retarded child may go up to the V grade level but, not more than that.

    When they grow as adults, can be trained to do their simple routine work to support themselves, but they are incapable of suitable management. The mentally deficit’s are definitely not inherently delinquent or immoral but because of their lack of intelligence they often commit small crimes and sex offenses. They do not clearly understand the social implications and repercussions of their action. Such people, children or adult need careful supervision for the betterment of the society.

    Lowest grade mental defectives cannot learn to walk, talk or feed themselves. They show less adaptability than the animals. For example, a chimpanzee has better adaptability capacity than a lower grade mentally deficient individual whose mental development is retarded than the chimpanzee’s. In the mentally retarded personalities organic pathology is obviously present.

    Anti-social personalities:

    The antisocial personalities are divided into two parts.

    1. Law violators

    2. Individuals with Psychopathic personalities

    1. Law violators:

    The Law violators are again classified from a legal point of view into delinquents and criminals on the basis of their age.

    (a) Delinquents:

    A minor who commits some offence is a delinquent in the eye of law.

    (b) Criminals:

    A small portion of the criminals are mentally defective, but most of them have average and sometimes superior menial ability.

    Criminals also suffer from psychoneuroses and neuroses.

    Coleman (1981) has presented the current classification accepted by the American Psychiatric Association (1952) made by the United Army during World War II. This classification of abnormal behaviour was subsequently put into practice by the Veterans Administration and is currently accepted on a large scale. According to Coleman (1981) this scheme though far from satisfactory provides a comprehensive coverage of abnormal reaction patterns and differentiates reasonably well among specific mental disorders.

    Current Classification:

    The present official classification method for psychological and mental disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2nd Edition (Known as DSMII) published by the American Psychiatric Association (1968). DSM II is based mainly on symptoms as the central factors in determining diagnosis. Currently DSM III, as a revision of DSM II is being prepared by the American Psychiatric Association.

    DSM III is described as a multiaxial classification system that provides classification on five distinct axis or dimensions.

    DSM III also differs from DSM II in its primary use of the term ‘disorder’ to describe patterns of abnormality as opposed to terms like reaction, illness and disease. The term ‘disorder’ typically reflects the continuing acceptance of the disease model of mental disturbance.

    The pioneers of DSM III such as Spitzer, Sheehy, and Endicott, (1977) feel that the new classification system will have many advantages over DSM II. According to them,

    A brief outline of DSM II:

    (i) Mental retardation. Borderline, mild, severe and profound retardation.

    (ii) Organic brain syndromes. Disorders associated with or caused by impairment of brain tissues and its functions.

    (iii) Psychoses not attributed to physical conditions listed previously. Severe disorders for which there seems to be no organic basis.

    (iv) Neuroses. Milder than the psychoses, neuroses typically have anxiety as a basic causative factor.

    (v) Personality disorders and certain other non-psychotic disorders. A wide variety of behaviour patterns including sexual deviations and drug use.

    (vi) Psycho physiological disorders. Physical symptoms deemed to be psychogenic (Psychologically caused).

    (vii) Special symptoms. Many disorders such as bed wetting, speech disorder, etc. are so specific and so different from those above that they are placed in this special grouping.

    (viii) Transient situational disturbances. Temporary syndromes for which usually there is a clear cut external stress.

    (ix) Behaviour disorders of childhood and adolescence. Certain specific types of childhood behaviours are seen as stable, common patterns of symptoms.

    (x) Conditions without manifest psychiatric disorder and non-specific conditions. Marital problems and different types of social maladjustment.

    A proposed classification by DSM III which is in a draft stage:

    I. Clinical psychiatric syndromes and conditions such as depressive disorder.

    II. Personality disorders in adults and specific developmental disorders in children such as compulsive personality disorder.

    III. Non-mental medical disorders that are potentially relevant; such as diabetes in a child with a specific developmental disorder such as bed wetting.

    IV. Severity of psychosocial stresses permits diagnostician to judge severity of stress that has contributed to an episode of a disorder.

    V. Highest level of adaptive functioning. It allows diagnosticians to record the degree of adjustment or impairment during the year prior to the diagnosis.

    “DSM III is the first national classification system in psychiatry to utilize operational criteria, explicit principles of classification, a multi axial approach to diagnosis; and extensive field testing prior to adoption… we believe that the principles that are guiding the development of DSM III will prove fruitful for both the scientific and clinical “development of psychiatry.”

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