Human Trafficking In The Philippines Essay

See also: Sex Tourism in the Philippines

Human trafficking and the prostitution of children is a significant issue in the Philippines, often controlled by organized crime syndicates.[1][2] Human Trafficking in the Philippines is a crime against humanity.[3][4][5][6][7]

In an effort to deal with the problem, the Philippines passed R.A. 9208, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, a penal law against human trafficking, sex tourism, sex slavery and child prostitution.[8] In 2006, enforcement was reported to be inconsistent.[9]

U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 1" in 2017.[10]

Statistics[edit]

A 1997 report put the number of child victims of prostitution at 75,000 in the Philippines.,[11] with other estimates saying as many as 100,000.[12]

According to the United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) estimated 60,000 to 100,000 children in the Philippines were involved in prostitution rings.[13] According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) about 100,000 children were involved in prostitution as of 2009[update].[14] is a high incidence of child prostitution in tourist areas. An undetermined number of children are forced into exploitative labor operations.[13]

It was estimated in 1995 that the Philippines was the fourth country with the most number of children forced into prostitution,[15] and authorities have identified an increase in child molesters travelling to the Philippines.[16]

In 2007, there were estimated to be 375,000 women and girls in the sex trade in the Philippines, mostly between the ages of 15 and 20, though some are as young as 11.[17]

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies stated in 2003 that there were more than 1.5 million street children in the Philippines and many end up in prostitution and drug trafficking in places such as Manila and Angeles City.[18]

Government and NGO estimates in 2007 on the number of women trafficked ranged from 300,000 to 400,000 and the number of children trafficked ranged from 60,000 to 100,000.[19] According to the US government reports, the number of child victims in the Philippines range from 20,000 to 100,000, with foreign tourists, particularly other Asians, as perpetrators.[19]

In 2010, an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 children in the Philippines were involved in prostitution rings, according to Minette Rimando, a spokeswoman for the U.N.'S International Labour Organization's Manila office.[20] A 2006 article reported that based on statistics provided by the Visayan Forum Foundation, most victims were between 12 and 22 years old.[21]

The Philippines is ranked under Tier 2 Watch List in the 2009 Trafficking in Persons Report of the United States (US) State Department due to the Philippine government’s alleged failure to show evidence of progress in convicting trafficking offenders, particularly those responsible for labor trafficking.[22]

Problem areas and history[edit]

A report published in 2004 by the Vatican stated: The Philippines has a serious trafficking problem of women and children illegally recruited into the tourist industry for sexual exploitation. Destinations within the country are Metro Manila, Angeles City, Olongapo City, towns in Bulacan, Batangas, Cebu City, Davao and Cagayan de Oro City and other sex tourist resorts such as Puerto Galera, which is notorious, Pagsanjan, Laguna, San Fernando Pampanga, and many beach resorts throughout the country. The promise of recruiters offers women and children attractive jobs in the country or abroad, and instead they are coerced and forced and controlled into the sex industry for tourists.[23]

Puerto Galera[edit]

There are numerous cases of child molestation that have been reported in Puerto Galera, a beach resort on Mindoro Island three hours south of Manila. The area is a favorite for foreign child molesters seeking children.[23][24] Puerto Galera was described in 1997 as one of the Philippines top five spots for child prostitution[25][26]

Angeles City[edit]

In 1991 a volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo forced an evacuation and destroyed much of the Clark Air Base, a major United States military facility located 40 miles (60 km) northwest of Manila, which closed shortly thereafter. Most of the sex trade around the base closed at the same time due to the loss of the GI customers.[27][28] Mayor Alfredo Lim proceeded to crack down on Manila's remaining sex industry, causing many of these businesses to relocate to Angeles City, which borders on the closed base, and was becoming a popular tourist destination especially with former GI's.[29] By the late 1990s, UNICEF estimated that there are 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines, describing Angeles City brothels as "notorious" for offering sex with children. In 1997, the BBC reported that UNICEF estimated many of the 200 brothels in the notorious Angeles City offer children for sex.[30] In 2004, Police arrested foreigners and Filipino's and rescued 15 females of a child pornography and cybersex ring in Angeles City.[31]

The current[timeframe?] trade is dominated by Australian bar operators[32][not in citation given] and sustained by tourists seeking inexpensive sex, often with children.[33] In bars catering mostly to foreign men, girls are sold for a "bar fine".[25][34] Conditions are sometimes brutal[35] Children and teenagers are lured into the industry from poor areas by promises of money and care, and are kept there by threats, debt bondage and the fear of poverty.[35][36] Angeles City is one of the largest sex tourist destinations in the world with just over 15 thousand women working in its various sex establishments (brothels, bars and videokes).[37]

In 2005, UNICEF reported evidence of growing child pornography production in Angeles City.[38] Children as young as ten years old have been rescued from brothels in Angeles.[39]

In 2008, Angeles Mayor Francis Nepomuceno acknowledged the problem. “We admit having HIV cases and that prostitution may be flourishing". STD cases rose five times. The RHWC treated 1,421 cases in 2005, 2,516 cases in 2006 and 6,229 cases in 2007. Most of the afflicted were women.[40]

In 2010, CNN ran an article about a 15-year-old who began working in prostitution in a bar in the notorious fields ave, Angeles City because she needed money to support her baby. She was eventually trafficked to Malaysia where she was forced to take drugs and forced to service 20 customers a day[20]

Metro Manila[edit]

Visayan Forum Foundation has established in 2002 that most of the children and young women trafficked to Manila from rural areas in search of work were assured jobs as domestic workers, but in a significant number of cases end up in the sex trade.[41]

Pagsanjan[edit]

CNN stated in 2010 that "A decade ago, Pagsanjan, located about 60 miles south of Manila, became known as a popular location for men seeking homosexual prostitutes."[42] Pagsanjan began to attract an increasing number of child molesters. "In the '80s, Pagsanjan was declared by international gay publications as a paradise for them, a gay paradise, a haven for homosexuals", said Dr. Sonia Zaide, an activist who is particularly concerned by the expansion of the town's sex trade to include minors, mostly young boys.[42][43][44][45]Time magazine reported in 1993 that Pagsanjan was a favorite destination for sex tourists seeking children.[46] The Filipino government began a crackdown on the child sex industry in Pagsanjan and 23 people of varying nationalities were arrested. Foreign child molesters take advantage of the poverty, with children often being used as sexual currency by their own parents.[47] The World Bank World Development Report for 1995 reported that the town of Pagsanjan through civic action had dramatically reduced child prostitution.[48]

Pasay[edit]

Childhope Asia Philippines, Inc. has a Community Mobilization against Child Prostitution project which started in 1994 to prevent child prostitution in Pasay and, more recently, in Caloocan City.[49] Children as young as 14- and 15-year-olds are child prostitutes in Pasay clubs.[50]

Makati[edit]

In 2003, Makati Mayor Jejomar C. Binay ordered a crackdown against prostitution following reports that some prostitutes are linked to criminal syndicates.[51] 33 women were rescued from a sex trafficking operation in Makati City by a team of National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) agents.[52] The Chief of the Southern Police District deployed policemen in schools in Makati City after the abductions of children by those involved in the sex trade industry. P/Supt. Manuel Cabigon, SPD director, said the increased police presence in schools would deter members of a flesh trade syndicate from further pursuing their illegal activities.[53]

Davao City[edit]

October 5 has become the Day of No Prostitution Campaign in Davao City. In 2005, the Philippine Information Agency reported documented cases of children as young as 10 years old forced into prostitution in Davao. Davao provinces, along with the Caraga region, have become the favorites of child traffickers posing as tourists.[54] An undated article reported that, based on an October 1997 source, Davao is one of the top five areas for child prostitution and sex tourism.[55] In 1998, the Tambayan Center for Abused Street Girls reported more than 1,000 teenage girls had turned to prostitution in Davao City, charging as little as 50 cents.[56]

Cebu[edit]

In 2001, it was estimated there were 10,000 young girls trafficked into sex slavery in Cebu.[57] "What has become very obvious is a growing market for child prostitutes," said Father Heinz, a Catholic priest who has been involved for more than a decade in initiatives to beat the pimps and child-traffickers.[57] It was reported in 2009 that Cebu remained a destination, source and transit area for human trafficking, where women and children victims are brought to be “processed”.[7] It was reported in 2005 that Cebu had been the destination of international and domestic trafficking of children, aged from 11 to 17 years old.[58]

Pampanga Province[edit]

More than a dozen of cybersex operations have been busted in the Pampanga province and Angeles City areas, this resulted in the rescue of hundreds of exploited women, most of them minors or below 18 years of age. Human trafficking or trafficking in person is some sort of slavery. Hundreds of computers sets have been seized, including sex toys and other gadgets used in the cybersex operations mostly maintained by foreigners. A forum hosted by the Prosecution Law Enforcement and Community Coordinating Service (proleccs) discussed several factors that contribute to the human trafficking problem and these include poverty, the proliferation of underground cybersex through internet and sex tourism.[59]

Lucena City[edit]

Lucena ports have been identified by anti-human trafficking advocates as transit points used by syndicates engaged in the recruitment of innocent women from remote areas destined for prostitution dens in other parts of the country.[60]

In 2008, after receiving on human trafficking activities, police armed with a search warrant raided a residential house at Pleasantville Subdivision in the village of Ilayang Iyam and rescued at least 14 women, three of them minors. The house had also been raided the previous month, resulting in the rescue of another group of alleged human trafficking victims. Following the raid a police spokesman, describing the suspect as "a known human trafficker and maintainer of suspected prostitutes in the locality", said that the suspected trafficker would face criminal charges for violation of Republic Act 9208."[60]

Subic Bay[edit]

In 1988 a Naval Investigative undercover operation based in Subic Bay were offered children for sex as young as 4.[61] Many of those involved in the prostitution of children have been brought to justice in the courts.[62][63] Most of the 16,000 women estimated to have worked the bars around the largest overseas naval base were forced into the sex industry.[64] One 16-year-old child tells of her experience in Subic Bay: She was locked in a room for a month, starved and force-fed drugs and alcohol to ensure she was addicted and could be more easily controlled. She was often beaten unconscious for refusing to have sex with customers.[64] Pregnancy, abortion, the spread of disease and drug abuse were just some of the indignities imposed on Filipinas.[65] Despite the US pull-out from Subic Bay in 1992, continues to fester, catering to a new generation of civilian sex tourists.[64] The former naval base, and current visits by American military have been the subject of protests by welfare groups and activists in Subic. Brandishing placards and chanting slogans, members of WAIL and GABRIELA called for justice for all victims of human rights abuses.[66]

Olongapo[edit]

Trafficking of Women and Children in Olongapo was rampant during the time of the Subic Naval Base located close by. In 1988, the US Naval Investigative Service confirmed the existence of child prostitution in Olongapo City.[67] After the base closure a new child molesters clientele from countries such as Australia and Europe moved in. In Olongapo City, there are believed to be 15,000 prostitutes, almost 8% of the total population.[47] Olongapo special prosecutor Dorentino Z. Floresta states, "Politicians do not want people to know that these things are happening in Olongapo," said Floresta.[68]

Visayas[edit]

Eastern Visayas continues to be a source of women and children being sent to Metro Manila brothels and sweatshops. Department of Social Welfare and Development officials said the number of human trafficking cases was increasing.[69] Leticia Corillo, DSWD regional director stated that the victims were mostly children and women.[69] Seventy percent are aged from 13 to 17 years old.[70] A DSWD report, said the Waray towns of Paranas and Jiabong and Calbayog City in Samar province and Mapanas and Las Navas in Northern Samar are considered as human trafficking “hotspots."[70]

Parañaque City[edit]

MA Foundation, the Women’s Legal Bureau and the Office of the President’s Philippine Center on Transnational Crimes raided a house in BF Executive Homes, Parañaque City, on Nov. 7, 2003, rescuing 31 women. Another 40 women were rescued in the next raid.[71]

Trafficking Of Filipinas to overseas destinations[edit]

There are 150,000 Filipina women that are trafficked into prostitution in Japan as reported in the July 2, 1998 issue of the Daily Star. Some of them were sold allegedly to the Yakuza for $2,400.00 to $18,000.00. A news item that appeared in the May 31, 1995 of the Manila Chronicle reports that 150 Filipinas were sold into prostitution for $5,000.00 each by international syndicates to night club operators in some African countries, particularly Nigeria.[72][unreliable source?] A trafficker earns $3,000-$5,000 for each woman or girl sold in the international sex trade.[73] 150,000 Filipina women have been trafficked into prostitution in Japan.[17]

Sex tourism[edit]

An article in the newspaper Davao Today reports that, according to experts, the growth of tourism in the Philippines in places such as Cebu and Boracay, has given rise to the sexual exploitation of women and children.[74] In a 2004 article, the People's Recovery, Empowerment Development Assistance Foundation (PREDA) reported in 2004 that ECPAT, which it describes as "a global network that campaigns against child prostitution", estimates that 300,000 sex tourists from Japan alone visit the Philippines every year. In the same article, PREDA reports, "many others are British."[75] Local NGO Preda states that the majority of the "customers" (the word used by the children to describe their abusers) are local tourists and about ten percent are foreign tourists. The foreign customers, according to arrest figures compiled by ECPAT Manila rank in frequency as follows: - American, Japanese, Australian, British, German, Swiss, other. nationalities.[61]

Unicef noted that child trafficking in the Philippines is the highest incidence of child prostitution in a tourist area.[76]

Foreign child molesters[edit]

The Philippines continued to assist U.S. law enforcement authorities in the transfer to U.S. custody of Americans who sexually exploited children.[77][not in citation given] Foreign child molesters are a major problem in a country like the Philippines. Some foreign child molesters are very well connected and have positions in industry and politics. Profile studies of these child molesters show they come mostly from Europe and are usually well off, married and with children of their own. Some foreign child molesters arrange with bribes and corrupt practices to get the children out of the country and abuse them in another country.[78] The problem of foreign child molesters continues to be reported in the press.[79] It was reported in 1999 that foreign child molesters have operated openly in the Philippines.[80] It was reported in 2006 that government officials had been accused of turning a blind eye to the sex tourism trade because it helps promote tourism in the country.[81]

In 2008, the Bureau of Immigration (BI) warned of a new modus operandi of foreign child molesters in the Philippines, saying “The child molesters usually meet the mothers, sometimes even the grandmothers, of possible victims online and make them their girlfriends. The women usually let the economically better-off foreigners into their lives and their homes, not knowing that the men would later pounce on their young children.”[82]

It was reported in 2007 that in Angeles, Pampanga (characterized as a hotspot for trafficking and sex trade), child molesters were increasingly using the Internet to lure other child molesters to come to the Philippines. Live video streaming on the Web was reported to show children being sexually abused. Other child molesters were reported to browse personal profiles or lurk in chat rooms to find their victims.[83]

One October 2004 paper asserted that most of the documented cases of child pornography had been instigated by foreign child molesters.[84] A 2005 paper by the same author tabulated reported cases of victims of child pornography as compared to victims survivors of child prostitution as follows:

Case/Year2000200120022003
Victims of Pornography94713
Victims of Prostitution186224245247
Source: Arnie C Trinidad, Child Pornography in the Philippines (2005), UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies and UNICEF Manila

News reports in 2008 indicated that the Philippines had deported five foreign child molesters that year (one German, two American and two Japanese), and was seeking five Britons.[85]

Mail-order bride trafficking[edit]

Republic Act 6955 declares as unlawful "the practice of matching Filipino women for marriage to foreign nationals on a mail order basis."[86][87] It is also unlawful under the R.A. 9208, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, a penal law against human trafficking, sex tourism, sex slavery and child prostitution.[8] The Philippines Government first outlawed bride agencies in 1990 after being alarmed at reports of widespread abuse of Philippine women in other countries.[88]

There have been 5,000 Filipina mail order brides entering the United States every year since 1986, a total of 55,000 as of 1997.[89] Matibag, an assistant professor of the Department of Sociology at the Iowa State University, said browsing for potential brides on websites is as easy as shopping for a shirt. Each woman is assigned a catalogue number.[90] Maria Regina Angela Galias, head of the Migrant Integration and Education Division of the Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO), stated that South Korea and Japan have become the top destinations of Filipina mail-order brides.[91] Over 70% of Philippine women live in poverty, thus making them particularly vulnerable to the mail-order industry.[88]

Debt bondage[edit]

Debt bondage is a criminal offence under the R.A. 9208, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003[8] According to Human Rights Watch, the practice of "debt bondage" among sexual traffickers is routine, and women often find that their so-called debts only increase and can never be fully repaid.[92] Recruiters sometimes buy children and sell them into prostitution. Most often the children have either been stolen from their villages or sold off by their poor families.[93][94]

Child-organ trafficking[edit]

In 2008, the National Bureau of Investigation alerted the public over the rampant smuggling of human organs in the Philippines. The NBI said smugglers are now targeting children who are kidnapped and taken abroad where their organs are sold to foreign nationals.[95][96] The World Health Organization has identified the Philippines as one of the five organ trafficking hotpots.[97] However, a recent 2008 proclamation by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has markedly decreased the frequency and ease of the commercial organ trade industry in the Philippines.[98]

Efforts to control[edit]

Philippine law defines the worst forms of child labor as all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery; any use of a child in prostitution, pornography, or pornographic performances; any use of a child for illegal or illicit activities; and work that is hazardous, including nine hazardous categories. The law criminalizes trafficking of children for exploitation, including trafficking for sex tourism, prostitution, pornography, forced labor, and the recruitment of children into armed conflict. The law establishes the penalty of life imprisonment and a fine for trafficking violations involving children and provides for the confiscation of any proceeds derived from trafficking crimes.[99]

Ani Saguisag, a lawyer with the child protection group, ECPAT, identifies lax enforcement of RA 76/10 (sic—actually RA7610) as a major reason why so few offenders end up behind bars.[57]

Department of Justice records show that from June 2003 until January 2005 there were 65 complaints received for alleged trafficking in persons violations in the entire nation.[100]

In November 2009 The Philippine government signed into law of Republic Act 9775, also known as the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009, by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. This landmark legislation provides the full legal armor against producers, transmitters, sellers and users of child pornography in whatever form and means of production, dissemination and consumption, in public and private spaces.[101]

In 2009, the DSWD assisted 632 victims of trafficking in persons, illegal recruitment, prostitution, child molestation, pornography and child labor. From here 188 are male minors, 408 were female minors and 36 were women.[76]

Severino Gaña Jr., Assistant Chief State Prosecutor of the Department of Justice, stressed the need for a national database to track human trafficking cases in the Philippines.[21]

Gemma Gabuya, chief of the DSWD’s Social Technology Bureau, said the national government in a bid to address the problem had formed the Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) in 2003 in partnership with civil society organizations and other stakeholders of PACT.[76]

Microsoft has awarded over US$1 million through its Unlimited Potential grants to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) across six Asian countries, including the Philippines. The latest round of grants will deliver IT training courses specifically for people in human-trafficking hot spots across the region.[102]

Unicef executive director Carol Bellamy stated, The Philippines is among the few countries that are making a dent in the fight against the trafficking of women and children. She also stated, "This is not going to be easy, Bellamy said. "We are dealing with criminals and they are not stupid. There are lots of money to be made and they will go to any length to continue harming and exploiting children in this awful way".[103]

Protection by politicians and police[edit]

Some local politicians, mayors and their business cronies continue to allow the operation of clubs and bars where children are used as sexual commodities along with young women. Many women will tell how they were recruited as young as 13 and 14. They issue permits and licences for all establishments and harass and threaten those trying to rescue the children, gather evidence and bring charges against them.[104] The United States Embassy in the Philippines states that some officials condone a climate of impunity for those that exploit trafficked women and children[105] Politicians in the Philippines work with local criminal gangs to do their dirty work and in return the gangs are given protection for their involvement in prostitution.[106]

CATW-AP Executive Director, Jean Enriquez, expressed the groups concerns saying that many of the women victimized by politician-buyers are minors who are vulnerable and powerless. Also, most of them suffer various forms of physical violence, rape and degradation in the hands of customers and pimps resulting in low self-esteem and damaging their body and spirit. “These women, often referred to as criminals, are actually victims of the system of prostitution. The violence and abuses they suffer in the hands of customers and pimps cause deep wounds in their being. Sadly, this is made worse by politicians/government officials who buy and use them for (the purpose of) sexual exploitation. They are supposed to provide protection and support to women yet are the ones who inflict pain and suffering — they are the real criminals!” Enriquez said. The First National Conference of Victims-Survivors of Prostitution, held in Manila in October, charged the Philippines' government with committing human rights abuses. The women said that local governments, the Philippine National Police and the armed forces protect pimps and owners of businesses such as bars that promote prostitution, and that government officials themselves often use women in prostitution.[107] In 2008, IMA Foundation executive director Susan Pineda stated that, probably the series of raids on alleged prostitution fronts is mainly aimed to force the establishments to pay P50 daily per entertainer as "protection money" by some persons closely connected with City Hall.[108]

Presidential Anti-crime Commission has evidence that the police in Manila are selling the children to foreign tourists and diplomats information independently confirmed by journalists.[109]

When a journalist based in Angeles City wrote stories exposing corruption and human trafficking in Angeles she was harassed, attacked and threatened with death.[110][111]

When Father Shay Cullen exposed a child prostitution ring in Subic Bay he was threatened with deportation.[112]

Socio-Economic Impacts of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children in the Philippines[edit]

Health Forgone[edit]

The sexual exploitation of women and girls has dire, lifelong, consequences on their health. Some of these health risks include subjection to physical abuse and violence, poor reproductive health and health issues related to substance abuse (drugs are often used as a coping mechanism). Deaths arising from unsafe, illegal abortions and physical abuse and violence, have also become commonplace in this industry. In terms of reproductive health, children fare worse because they often lack the skills and ability to negotiate condom use and, thus are more vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS and Gonorrhea (a common STD among child prostitutes in the Philippines). It is reported that the prevalence of Gonorrhea was 18.6%.[113] This dismal health standard of the individuals in the sex industry could impede them from attaining the highest possible level of physical, mental and social well-being and maximizing their potential.[114]

The worrying trend is that these health risks are simply regarded as an occupational hazard of this industry. If left unchecked, the deteriorating health standards of these women and girls would have long-lasting negative effects on the Philippine society. Once the physical well-being of these women and girls has been compromised, the health of their potential offspring would also be adversely affected in one way or another. For instance, HIV is often transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. Furthermore, the constant sexual exploitation and degradation these women and girls face may lead to various types of psychiatric morbidity and an impaired ability to form attachments and successful interpersonal personal relationships.[114] Consequently, their poor health would prevent them from being competitive in the labor market and they cannot be as productive as the average, healthy worker. Similarly, their subsequent generation are also disadvantaged in the labor market due to their poor health. This under-utilization of the nation's current human resources and the loss of future human capital would have long-term repercussions on the economic development of the Philippines. Moreover, the deteriorating health standards of this burgeoning group of individuals could strain the social and healthcare systems of the Philippines in the future.

Lack of Access to Education[edit]

The proliferation of child prostitution has a direct negative impact on the education levels of the children in the Philippines. The primary school completion rate in the Philippines was only 92% in 2007.[115] In order to achieve the Millennium Goals set by the UN, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, should be able to complete a full course of primary school. This goal may not be reached at the rate child prostitution is flourishing in the Philippines.

An estimated 400,000 prostitutes working in the Philippines are underage (of school-going age).[116] Without proper educational qualifications, even the minority of the children who escape their plight lack the skills to be competitive in the labor market and thus, face grim economic prospects. The lack of access to education for these women and girls has a profound impact on the quality of life their progeny would experience also, because these girls, if they ever start a family, may not have the skills or the knowledge to generate a steady source of income to support their family. Without the financial means to receive a proper education, generations after generations would be prevented from achieving social mobility and attaining equal opportunities. This in turn, prevents them from earning higher wages and entrenching them farther into poverty.

Prevention[edit]

In 2007, the government's Interagency Council Against Trafficking established its first anti-trafficking task force at Manila's international airport to share information on traffickers and assist victims. In 2006 the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA) issued new employment requirements for overseas Filipino household workers to protect them from widespread employer abuse and trafficking.[117] In 1983, Sister Soledad set up STOP (Stop Trafficking in Filipinas), to carry information into rural Philippine communities, stimulate income-producing projects for rural women and pressure authorities who connive at trafficking. In February 1986 they were supported by President Corazon Aquino, who said at her first press conference, "I will do my best so that we will be able to provide jobs for our women...so they will not have to resort to this."[112]

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)[edit]

The Philippine government continues to rely heavily on NGOs and international organizations to provide services to victims. The Department of Social Welfare and Development operated 42 temporary shelters for victims throughout the country. Thirteen of these shelters were supported by a non-profit charity organization. Philippines law permits private prosecutors to prosecute cases under the direction and control of a public prosecutor. The government has used this provision effectively, allowing and supporting an NGO to file 23 cases in 2007.[117]

The Philippine campaign against Child Trafficking—or PACT, is an anti-child trafficking campaign that was launched by ECPAT Philippines to raise awareness on the Child Trafficking phenomena in the country. The campaign also aims to encourage local mechanisms for the prevention and protection of children against Child Trafficking as well as other programs which are unified with the intensification of the human rights of children such as the holistic recovery and reintegration of child victims of trafficking.[118]

Stairway Foundation, a child protection NGO, came up in 2009 with its 3rd animation film called "Red Leaves Falling" which is about child sex trafficking and pornography under the Break the Silence Campaign. The said film is being used by numerous government and non-government organizations to raise awareness on the issue of trafficking.[119]

In 2010, the Office of the Ombudsman signed a memorandum of agreement with select cause-oriented groups – the Visayan Forum Foundation (VFF), Ateneo Human Rights Center (AHRC), and the International Justice Mission (IJM) – so that they could help in the collective fight against human trafficking.[120]

The Visayan Forum Foundation Inc. (VFF), has rescued and helped more than 32,000 victims and potential victims of trafficking since it was established in 1991.[121] The Visayan Forum work with the Philippine coast guard, the government's Port Authority, and shipping company, Aboitez, to keep monitor arriving boats in the main ports, looking for possible traffickers traveling with groups of children. The organization has operations in four main ports serving Manila, and says it rescues between 20 and 60 children a week.[122]

However, foreign sex traffickers and child molesters often harass Catholic and other groups by lodging multiple libel and other suits.[123]

Human Trafficking And Forced Child Prostitution

Human Trafficking and Forced Child Prostitution

When Prof. Martin Patt of the University of Massachusetts-Lowell retired from active teaching in 2002, he began to devote both time and energy to new projects as they captured his attention. Lately his attention has been captured by both human trafficking and one of its derivatives, forced child prostitution. He has been developing a related resource website [ http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking ] that packs quite a punch in demonstrating the horrible reality of trafficking in persons. His website features a list of countries. Clicking on a country brings up a description of its human trafficking situation followed by a list of current related web-links. Many of these links (e.g. Philippines) are heavy with child prostitution.

We learn from one of the links posted on his website, for example, that the words child labor that often evoke images of young children toiling for pennies in sweatshops - producing clothes or sporting goods that are exported for consumption in Western markets, can also imply the commercial sexual exploitation of children for prostitution or pornography and the utilization of children for drug trafficking. Prof. Patt's website contains links to testimonials of former child laborers that are haunting. Children as young as five are subject to physical, sexual and emotional abuse; they are kidnapped, sold, or tricked into forced labor, sometimes by friends or family; they work with harmful chemicals, equipment, or in life-threatening conditions, resulting in long-term health consequences; they are extremely susceptible to HIV/AIDS; and in many cases, they lose the opportunity to access one of the most basic rights of all children: education.1

Perhaps like you, I too had thought that human trafficking was an institution of the past, with the exception of a few isolated Middle Eastern and African states. How utterly wrong I was! Prof. Patt shows that the more you look, the more evil you find. Sadly, I am learning that we live in a somewhat dark world, and that there are not hundreds, but thousands of children trapped in situations of commercial sexual exploitation.

One of his links leads to a New York Times article (August 10, 1997) from which I learned that the slave trade in children is increasing in Central Africa. Well-dressed traders travel to poor rural areas to offer parents money, from...

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1508 words - 6 pages Throughout the globe, whether a country is highly developed or unstable, all countries must face the issue of humanitarian crisis. These misfortunes can be triggered by human action or can occur involuntarily. Ranging from natural disasters, to diseases, to internal or external conflict, each has been proven to be detrimental to the stability of the society. Haiti has recently gotten attention for being simultaneously affected by multiple...

We Must Put and End to Human Trafficking

4130 words - 17 pages Citizens of countries around the globe would like to believe that slavery has been banished from the modern world. This could not be farther from the truth. Governments refuse to acknowledge the fact that slavery exists within their borders. Slavery in its most heinous form lurks in the dark corners of every society. Human trafficking is without a doubt one of the most monstrous offenses against human rights that occurs today. It...

Human Rights and Child Labor

1018 words - 4 pages Human rights are moral right, which everyone has regardless of gender, race, color, language, nationality, age, religion, or political beliefs. Anything that violates these rights is a crime against humanity. Child labor is a crime that robs children of the right to a childhood. Children forced to work often suffer from many life-threatening diseases, most commonly malnutrition. Child labor is a problem in many parts of the world, but the...

Human Trafficking: Modern Day Slavery that Poses a National and International Security Risk

1967 words - 8 pages Human trafficking has been entwined into the structure of governments, arms trade, drug trade, and even spreads as far as terrorism. For many years it has been a fact that the money that has been made by selling other humans to the highest bidder. It is also known that the organized crime operations generate one of the most profitable resources to the organization. These organizations use this money for theirs or other’s crime and end up in the...

The Global Problem of Human Trafficking and What Some Countries Are Doing About It

1246 words - 5 pages Human trafficking forces millions against their will to beg, prostitute, or work in sweatshops for the profit of others. It is a crime against humanity that affects almost every country. The definition of human trafficking according to the book “Trafficking in Human$” is, the recruitment and transportation of human beings through deception and coercion for the purposes of exploitation. Human trafficking is an on-going issue with negative effects...

Human Trafficking Violates Human Rights

2453 words - 10 pages Human trafficking is a topic that is not discussed very often in society. Many people fail to realize that human trafficking still exists today. Human trafficking violates basic human rights. It takes away the freedom and security of men, women, and children world wide. The diversity and widespread execution of human trafficking make it difficult to regulate and prosecute. In the international effort to prosecute human trafficking, several...

Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia

1608 words - 6 pages Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia The world today faces many problems that are being combated by many organizations, yet there are broad ranges of challenges that are waiting to be fixed up but the efforts are not producing great results. One such problem human trafficking has been affecting many lives through years but through recent decades human trafficking both sexually and labor exploitation have risen drastically. Especially, in...

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