In this essay we will discuss about the importance of wildlife tourism in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Wildlife Tourism in India 2. Importance of Wildlife Tourism in India 3. Tourism in National Parks and Reserve Forests.
Essay # 1. Introduction to Wildlife Tourism in India:
India is a land of most beautiful wild lands and natural parks, rich in bio-diversity and heavily populated forests. At present, there are 450 National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and protected areas in the country. Some 3000 most beautiful natural areas and wild lands are known for their scenic beauty. These can be used just to encourage wildlife tourism and natural tourism in the country. At present 6.5 million tourists are visiting India annually and most of them are wild life tourists or tourists interested to visit natural areas.
Wildlife protection and conservation activities should be encouraged to boost up wildlife tourism. We can take it from countries like – South Africa (The Kruger National Park). The Amazon National Park (Brazil), Gunung Leuser National Park (Indonesia), Thai National Park (Thailand) is among the most admired wild life parks in the world. In India, Rajaji National Park, The Great Himalayan National Park ( Kullu), The Valley of Flowers, Jim Corbett National Park, Kaziranga National Park (Assam) and Kanha National Park are popular among the tourists for their rich biodiversity. Besides this, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have some most beautiful wildlife sanctuaries known for their amazing beauty and rich fauna and flora.
There is a great need to encourage conservation work through creating natural habitats, expanding the park area, stopping deforestation and encroachment by farmers, pastoral people and timber smugglers.
After creating a peaceful and pleasant environment, the tourism should be encouraged at a larger scale. There is some impact of tourism but it can be overcome by some skillful ways of park authorizes and staff.
Essay # 2. Importance of Wildlife Tourism in India:
There is great need to encourage wildlife tourism in India as it has a rich and varied wildlife in the forests. By encouraging wildlife tourism, it will pave the way for wildlife conservation thus creating a mass awareness among the people of the country.
In modern times nature tourism and wildlife tourism is attracting the foreign tourists at larger scale. The scenic spectrum of natural areas is always attracting the lovers of nature. The amazing wild animals are a great source of human recreation.
In several countries wildlife tourism has become the backbone of their economy. In South Africa, there are only Seven National Parks and all of them are doing well in wildlife tourism. The Kruger National Park is a largest wilderness in South Africa and is the king of all national parks. The park is getting four to six million tourists every year and is a haven for all the wild animals in South Africa. The park has been fully commercialised by the South African Government. It functions as largest Game and Safari Park for the big businessmen and a large fee is taken from them to maintain the affairs of the Park.
Essay # 3. Tourism in National Parks and Reserve Forests:
We have already mentioned that there are 450 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in India. Some 3000 most beautiful natural areas are in the country to provide best recreation to foreign tourists.
There are some great findings regarding the protection of rich bio-diversity of the parks and wildlife sanctuaries:
1. All the National Parks and wildlife sanctuaries should be kept in good state. They should be protected into the most modern ways and should be prepared to welcome the visitors into an impressive way. The Safari Parks, wildlife sanctuaries, bird sanctuaries and National Tiger and Rhino Breeding centres should be made more recreative. For example Rajaji National Park, Jim Corbett Tiger Sanctuary, Kaziranga National Park and Ranthambhour Tiger Park have unique bio-diversity. The Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu are some of the most beautiful parks which have great attraction to welcome the visitors.
The wonders of nature are spread into the forms of mountains, forests, valleys, waterfalls, rivers and flowering pastures. The natural spectrum of wild lands always encourage people from far and near to travel the scenic lands. Modern adventure sports should be organised there just to impress the travellers from far and near. Small restaurants and stay points should be established near the natural areas and national parks. For this reason, the tourists explore the way to enjoy life from a different angle.
It has been seen that where there were some restaurants and rest houses near the natural areas or wildlife park, the tourists came there in larger numbers. They enjoyed them during trekking the wild lands. They enjoyed food in the restaurants and took rest in the rest houses. This provides them a good spirit to enjoy life in wilderness.
Whenever they felt for food and rest they came back to the stay points and restaurants to relax. After eating food or refreshment they took complete rest and again re-energised themselves to explore the natural beauty of the wild lands. All these events create a positive impression among the tourists coming from far and near and they enjoy the beauty of nature.
The river valleys and waterfalls have become popular among the foreigners in the Andes Mountain Ranges where the river valleys, slopes and waterfalls create a beautiful spectrum of natural beauty amidst the forests and grass lands.
The waterfalls of Andes and Amazon in Brazil are quite popular among the tourists as they flock there in large numbers. In South Africa, there are great scenic spots to enjoy them from very near. We can observe the beauty and beast, in the midst of wild lands. Andes Ranges have most beautiful lakes, waterfalls and natural water springs to entertain human mind.
The most important thing is the amazing wild life in certain natural areas which remain untouched from the outer world. There are some most beautiful and inspiring moments when a group of friends observe the activities of a woolly monkey, opossum, bear or a humming bird. It is worth to mention here that the Andes mountain forests are a paradise for different species of humming birds. The Andes Mountains are a haven to the wild life watchers from all over the world.
In this way wild life tourism can be most successful in the Andes Mountains. These are the most scenic mountains in the world. The natural beauty always encourages the younger generation to visit the wild life parks the world over. Wildlife tourism in India has a very special meaning to the wildlife lovers.
There are some different species of wild animals in Indian parks. For example, Rajaji National Park, Dehradun and Kaziranga National Park in Assam have different wildlife species. And most of them are endemic to this particular ecological zone.
Pastures and Forests:
The pastures and forests with beautiful natural spectrum are a great source of inspirations to the travellers and nature lovers world ever. There are most beautiful places of natural importance in developing countries but poverty, pollution and disease have tarnished the charms to visit there.
Secondly, political upheavals, civil unrest, communal riots and water borne or airborne diseases are common there. And the governments in these countries are not concerned to remove poverty or to take steps to control the diseases. The tourists do not visit those countries inflicted in wars and diseases.
Basically the tourists are a peace loving people and like to enjoy their time in peace and harmony. They require pure, germless water to drink and neat and clean food with great hygienic quality. The beds and stay points with purity and cleanliness are necessary for the relaxation of tourists and explorers. The famous grasslands, highland pastures, prairies, pampas, the plains of reeds (Mekong delta), low velds and downs are such beautiful grasslands to visit and enjoy the different ecosystem of the world. In this way it is necessary to enjoy life in the open grasslands amidst the trees and bushes.
The Safari Parks provide great recreations. The vast grasslands and forests are a haven for wildlife tourism. There are safari Parks to enjoy the amazing beauty of wildlife. For example Amazon National Park (Brazil), the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and Serengeti National Park (Congo) provide best recreation to wildlife watchers.
All the wild animals (herbivores and carnivores) in the above parks are there in large numbers. In Kruger National Park, more than two lakhs of Impala deers, 10,000 elephants, 3500 white rhinos, 400 black rhinos 20,000 bisons, 2,000 lions, 900 leopards, 250 cheetal, 5000 giraffe, 14,000 wildebeests, 1000 stag deers and 40,000 Zebras are enjoying natural environment in this world famous Safari Park.
Besides this, 507 species of wild birds, 114 species of reptiles, 34 species of amphibians, 49 species of fishes, and 336 different species of trees are found in the Kruger National Park and that’s why this park is liked by all the wildlife lovers of the world. The park is spread in 25,000 square kilometers and more than 3000000 lakh tourists visit the park every year.
Rajaji National Park:
Rajaji National Park is spread in 1600 square kilometers and is an ideal Safari Park of India. It has a large population of Asian elephants, tigers, leopards, primates, reptiles, avies and orthopoda to enjoy the beauty of wildlife adventure. Besides this, it has its natural wetlands, 174 Bio-diversity Conservation and Wildlife Tourism plants, trees and herbs in large numbers.
The park is being disturbed by timber smugglers, poachers and smugglers of elephant tusks and tiger skin and bones. This has disturbed the peace of this park. The network of smugglers is very wide and they are spread all over the country. Several wild animals were killed by the poachers during 2003-2010 in Raja National Park.
Jim Corbett National Park:
Jim Corbett National Park is quite famous in the name of British hunter, Jim Corbett. The park is an ideal sanctuary for leopards and tigers. The international tourists who are visiting this park are from western countries as well as South East Asian nations.
The area of Jim Corbett Park has been expanded from time to time. The area of Rajaji National Park and Jim Corbett National Park function as a single entity for the corridors of elephants and a large roaming area for tigers. Both parks are densely populated and match to each other’s ecosystem. In this way both the park are an ideal roaming area for the tigers as well as for the elephants.
The bamboo forests in the country are a great source of bio-diversity. In the forests where there is a great density of bamboos small mammals, wild birds and reptiles are found in larger numbers. The bamboo forests of Kotdwara hills, Rajaji National Park, Kaziranga National Park, and forests of North Eastern States, Central India and other parts where there are vast densities of bamboos forests and where marsh deers, weasel, mangoose, rabbits, porcupine, foxes and other animals are found in large numbers. The bamboo forests are a great source of food for the herbivores living in the Shivalik hills.
The bamboo forests are great source of innovative technologies for the farmers and tribal communities. For housing, bridge making, river side housing and open hampsteads bamboos are always a wonder timber for the poor people. The bamboo forests provide shelter to eagles, hawks, vultures, owls, bats and several other birds. For bird watching and camplife bamboo forests are a boon to man.
Wildlife of Saal Forests:
The saal forests are a haven for carnivores as well as herbivores. The large mammals, tigers, bears, elephants, stagdeers, wild boars, primates, foxes, weasels and mongoose are the original animals of these forests.
The reptiles, avies, orthopodas and several other living creatures are found in the saal forests. The wild fowl is the mother of domestic fowls and several cross breeds have been produced from the wild fowls. If the saal forests are gone, various species of song birds, parrots, huppoe, woodpecker, wild fowl, water fowl and other birds will be vanished away permanently. The saal forests provide shade and shelter to other shade loving plants under their canopy. The ferns, flowering plants, small growth of trees and several other shade loving plants which grow under the saal trees are of great importance to human being.
For example, Rajaji National Park, Dehradun and the ancient saal forests of Bhabhar Kotdwara Garhwal are a great source of wild vegetables and natural mushrooms during the rainy season. The rich bio-diversity of saal forests always inspires the man to explore the wildlands and forest patches.
The Mountain Forests:
The mountain forests are a great source of courage and inspiration to human being as they are firm, determined and nature’s ultimate strongholds. The mountain forests which are fresh, clean and pollution less always encourage us to trek them or camp amidst the lush green forests. In the Indian mountains, April and May months are more pleasant as they are the summer months and there is still some chilling cold in the mountains to make us more active for our trekking schedule.
1. The mountain forests provide us great inspiration while trekking through them.
2. The mountain slopes and valleys are good for camp life.
3. Nature watching is the best pastime hobby.
4. Bird watching in the foothills and valleys.
5. Herbal tracks through the mountain slopes.
6. Ideal camp life in the mountain pastures and grasslands.
Wildlife of Shivalik Mountains:
There is abundant wildlife in the foothills and valleys of Shivalik Mountains. The semi-temperate and moisturous mountains are great habitats of wild animals, birds, reptiles and orthopoda. There are small fruit plants, berries, for herbivores birds and small deers and rabbits. The bears, primates and wild boars are also found in large numbers there. The Shivalik tigers, foxes, primates and porcupines are found in large numbers.
In the foothills, because of moisture and small water sources, there are numerous species of insects, moths, butterflies and other flying insects which are an ideal food for birds, pheasants, lizards, frogs and other small animals.
1. The Shivalik Hills are of medium heights and hence are more enjoyable during summer as well as winter. During summer, they have very warm climate and valleys always protect us from harsh winds during winter.
2. Even, the small forests are a paradise for bird watching.
3. There are numerous natural areas for exploration activities.
4. Trekking routes, passes through the forests and wild lands are most enjoyable.
5. There are some beautiful huts amidst natural areas and some days can be enjoyed in peace and serenity.
6. The small hills of Shivalik Himalayas are pleasant for winter as well as summer day’s camplife. The Shivalik Valleys are average warm during winter days.
7. The Shivalik wildlands are a great source of celebrating of tea parties and picnic holidays.
8. Natural places for exploration activities.
Wildlife Tourism in Terai:
The wildlife parks in Terai are ideal habitats for the wildlife protection. The terai forests are the particular one where the forests of the mountains as well as from plains meet. This is an ideal place where the wild animals from mountains meet their counterparts from the plains. These parks have an assimilating temperature from mountain hills as well as terai plains and making them an ideal habitation for the wild animals of both ecosystems.
In these parks, one can find more birds from mountains as well as plains during winter and spring season. Such wildlife parks have become an ideal habitation and an expanded roaming area for elephants, tigers, bears, deers, wild boars as well as other small animals. The terai regions are ideal sports for bird watching, nature watching and camping in the wild. The access of a big passage of road to the park makes it more enjoyable and profitable for the purpose of Safari Parking as the tourists face tigers and elephants from a near distance. It becomes more exciting for the visitors to enjoy wildlife from very near.
Wildlife Tourism in Bharsaar, Pauri Hills:
There is rich bio-diversity even in bare small mountains of Pauri hills. Bharsaar is a beautiful mountain Resort in Pabau block. This is a great combination of high mountain Ranges, the apple orchards, pastures and valleys. The mountain tops are covered by oak, cedar, myrica esculenta, rhododendron and other alpine grasses and bushes.
The bushes of Hisaaloo, Kingora, Lisimachia punctate – a yellow flowering bush and a medicinal plant is found abundantly in this area. The climate remains colder in the summer months of May-June. The heights of Bharsaar mountain peaks may range to 8000-9000 ft. as during winter the peaks are covered with first snow of the year.
Bharsaar is a Horticulture College and is situated in a wide valley. This place has become immense attraction for the scholars of horticulture science, nature lovers and explorers of the wild lands. Above the Bharsaar Horticulture College, there is a temple of Budhaa Bharsaar in the midst of deep forests which has become immense attraction among the trekkers and explorers of forests and wildlands.
Wildlife Tourism in Khirsoo Hills:
Khirsoo is a beautiful mountain forest which has been declared a wildlife sanctuary quite recently. The place is known for its heavily dotted forests and beautiful wildlands. Wildlife is rich and abundant in the forests of Khirsoo. The mountain tigers, several species of monkeys, langoors, foxes, bears, wildcats, wildboars, porcupines, weasels, and rabbits are found in large numbers. The small mountain deers Ghweed and Kakhad are found in these forests. The red foxes, porcupines and rabbits are found in warm valleys.
Khirsoo Wildlife Sanctuary is quite popular for its rich bird fauna. The wild fowls, water fowls, turtle dove, Kaljeenth (black magpie), Karaoon (blue magpie), saraoon (redmagpie), white paradise, hilaansh. Kaffoo, Koel, Green and blue coloured birds, Tailor birds, mouse birds, bulbul, surady, hornbill, kingfisher, forest crow, skylark, small species of Monal Pheasants are found in the forests. This is the most beautiful place for the enjoyment of natural beauty and wildlife.
Wildlife Tourism in Maandaakhaal:
Maandaakhaal is a mountainous natural wild land near Boobaakhaal. This is the most beautiful scenic land in the world and is known as the Alps of Shivalik Hills. Maandaakhaal is known as the Heaven of Pauri Hills and Crown of Maandaakhaal Valley.
1. The Natural Beauty:
The nature watching from Maandaakhaal is much more exciting like the mountains of Andes in South America. Here we are watching a full view of Pauri city and a large numbers of the Himalayan Peaks including Chaukhamba and adjoining mountain peaks.
The wildlife of Maandaakhaal remnant forests is like a heaven on earth – Mountain tigers, bears, wild boars, foxes, red fox, porcupines, rabbits, monkeys, langoors, weasels and several other small mammals are found here.
3. Among the birds, all mountain birds of middle heights are found here. The valleys of Maandaakhaal are pleasant and warm during winter in comparison to other mountains of the Himalayas. During July and August the whole valley is full of greenery and mountain flowers blossom here and there in the pastures and along the roadside. There are oak and pine forests in the valley which are quite popular for bird watching and nature watching. The valleys of Maandaalkhaal are pleasant and nice experience for nature study.
4. There are many beautiful pastures and Ideal Camp Sites for Camp life:
The wild lands of Maandaakhaal are an ideal destination for campsites for trekkers, tourists and explorers from far and near.
5. The whole Maandaakhaal is the most beautiful wild land covered with mountain grass, beautiful bushes, dwarf plants and some scattered cedar, oak and pine trees.
Maandaakhaal is a heaven on earth which is the most suitable example of Alpine climate with a marvellous growth of trees, bushes and grasses in the natural surroundings.
Wildlife Tourism in Ameli Forests:
Ameli forests are also known as mountains of rising sun. These mountains are covered with most beautiful, lovely and full of oak, cedar, pine and broad leaf canopy trees. The wildlife is rich and abundant as mountain tigers, bears, deers, wildboars, primates porcupines, ghoral (now extinct), rabbits, wild foxes, weasels, wild cats and several other mountain animals, are found in the deep forests and valleys.
Ameli Mountains are moisturous mountains and wild birds are found here abundantly. These forests are spread up to famous Adhvani forests of the high mountain ranges from Kanskhet, Deewa Danda, Danda Naagarjaa and various other mountains of wildlife importance. Ameli, Adhwani, Deewa and Dandaa Naagarjaa are the holy mountains of Pauri hills.
Among the wild birds, all the birds of semi-temperate mountain ranges are found here in the deep forests and valleys. The forests have an excellent amount of moisture and the orthopoda are found in large numbers. The birds feed upon them.
During summer as well as winter months some migrant birds also come here to breed in the deep forests and valleys which is an ideal place for breeding of migrant birds. After a few months they fly away to their original destinations.
Several species of parrots, hilaansh, kaffoo, koel and laughing birds, are found in the forests of Ameli.
Some 40 years back this forest was an ideal sanctuary for Ghweed and Kakhad (very small deers) but now only 5 or 10 small deers are visible in the forests. The continuous felling of forests in large numbers have destroyed their original habitats and resting points.
Once these forests were so densely populated that the sun rays could hardly penetrated through their canopies. In 1960s, a large portion of ancient forests was felled by the wood smugglers, government contractors and local timber mafias.
This has badly ruined the mountain forests which once were the living haven for the rich wildlife there:
1. Adhwani and Ameli are best destinations for exploration activities.
2. Ideal for wildlife camping.
3. Ideal for Trekking.
4. Ideal destinations for bird watching.
5. Wildlife tourism can be encouraged in Ameli and Adhwani forests.
6. The forests are interesting sites for botanical studies.
Wildlife Tourism and Kanskhet Forests:
The cedar forests of Kanskhet are the most beautiful and scenic mountains of Pauri hills. The road from Kandolia to Kanskhet is plain serpentine with oak, cedar and pine trees make a beautiful impression when we drive in the sunlit morning with pleasant environment. The sweet songs of birds in the far away forests amidst the nature provide us a good recreation.
The densely populated forests are a living paradise of nature. Several species of birds, most of them song birds exist in the valleys and forests. Small birds fly from one bush to another in search of food and nesting. We can spot several beautiful nests of different shapes and sizes on the branches of bushes, trees and long grasses. Some of the small trees are a haven for bulbul, mouse birds, tailorbirds and turtledove.
There is a great need of some stay points, picnic spots and rest houses near the periphery of Kanskhet forestland. The spring time is quite pleasant and full of delight as we pass through the oak, cedar and pine forests. The summer days are always cool, peaceful and most enjoyable in the valleys.
The grasslands are a beautiful shelter for pheasants, wildfowls and local birds like teetar, chakor and baters etc. These birds are found in the valleys of Shivalik hills.
Adhwani Forests and Daandaa Naagarjaa:
The forest area in Kanskhet is not only scenic and beautiful but it is full of natural habitats of wildlife. There are some beautiful vibrations and positive indications in this golden land.
In the same way, the Adhvani forests and Daanadaa Naagarjaa are a great source of inspiration to religious people as well as nature lovers from far and near. Daandaa Naagarjaa is the most ancient temple amidst oak and deodar forests. Wildlife in these forests is the same as in other mountain forests. The birds are amazingly most beautiful, multi colour and sing the sweetest songs of life.
The moonlit nights:
In summer days the moonlit nights are amazingly beautiful, pleasant and enjoyable while walking through the road. The moonlit nights provide us immense pleasure and happiness in the silence of night. At that expensive time all the forests remain silent and provide a real happiness amidst bright moonlit nights.
A large number of tourists have expressed their willingness to visit these places and see the environment in the moonlit nights, but main problem is that there is not a proper stay point between Kanskhet and Pauri. There is a great need of a permanent Rest House with food at Tekka the beautiful place and a paradise of nature. Tekka is the most pleasant place and a temporary stay point of village Kewarsh. Kewarsh is an ancient village of Pauri Garhwal and Tekka, a beautiful tea point.
Nature Watching in Boobaakhaal, Seekudhaar and Jaspur-Kandai Mountains:
The Shivalik Mountains are a beautiful sight for nature watching, hang gliding, paragliding, trekking and exploration activities. BubaaKhaal, Ghori Khaal, Pashunda Khaal, Ghandiyaal Khaal, Seekoo Dhaar and Jaspur Kaandai mountain ranges are full of natural beauty. These mountains are best located in Shivalik hills and are known for rich biodiversity. The forests, pastures and valleys are rich in biodiversity and plant species.
Jaspur Kandai, Seeku Dhaar, Ghandiyaal Khaal are known for several medicinal herbs and ornamental plants. Among them are chiraita, ferns, orchids, drossera, pitcher plant, lily, Kadwee, Lisimachia punctata, Varbascum longifoliam, Dudhiya-Sunflower, Kandella, Hisalloo, Kingora, Ficus auriculata, timla, bedoo, tunga, jaltanga, black Hisaaloos (Rasp bery – logan bery: black Aanchoo) wild catflower, sweet smelling Buryaali ghaash, aromatic herbs and green tea herbs are some of the best known flowering herbs which are beneficial to human being.
The Land of Wild Flowers:
This is the main region in Shivalik Mountains where there are abundant wild flower species. There are some 250 most beautiful wild flowers, creepers and small herbs which flower during spring and in the month of August after the rain is over. The whole mountain area and pasture lands are full of mountain flowers.
The Berginia Ciliata (Kamaliya), Jangli Piyaaj (Virginea indica), Genthee (Dioscorea bulbifera) family- Dioscorea mushtaka Booti (Cypeus rotundus) Cyperaceae and several other valuable medicinal herbs and plants are found in the middle heights of the Shivalik hills.
Orchids and Ferns:
There are several species of orchids and ferns found in the slopes and valleys of Shivalik Mountains. Some of these are of food vegetables and some others are of great medicinal values. The ornamental plants are also found in large numbers.
Oaks, Myrica Sepida, Rhododendron, Cedar, Fir, Juniper, Pine:
These trees are the main characteristic of the Himalayan flora. In fact, these trees and plants are found together in the Himalayas. Some mountain slopes and valleys are covered by oak, rhododendron, myrica esculenta, cedar, fir, juniper and pine and make a most beautiful and cumulative impact on the environment into a positive way. Ecologically, these plants are the original plants of Himalayan environment and are natural to grow there.
Among the tuberous roots, mashal chana, khabarshula, genthee, taidoo, wild yam etc. are some of the important wild tubers with great nutritious value for human being. There are some tubers which provide lifesaving medicines to human being. They are great cure to skin cancer, blood cancer and bone cancer. The genthee, taidoo, salab mishree are some of the medicinal herbs to cure the fatal diseases.
Lingad, Shishua and Ghanyaa:
Some wild food vegetables function like antibacterial medicines and also provide nutrition to our bodies. There are curative properties in lingad, shishua and ghanyaa, the wild vegetables found in the river valleys, river basin and mountain tops. Ghanyaa is found at 6000 ft. height; lingad and shishua are found near the river bank and river waters.
Lupiya, Loichatta, Pathar Chatta:
These are the rock worts and are known for their curative properties. Lupiya is an edible wort found at 4000-6000 ft. and is eaten raw. Loichatta and pather chatta are green herbs and suitable to cure the burns, cut and wounds. The paste of Loichatta and Pather chatta is rubbed on the injurious parts and the wound and is cured in two three days. If the blood is flowing continuously, these two herbs stop the blood flow and cure the cut part in a few days.
Mountain Flowers and Vegetables:
The mountain flowers and vegetables are of great importance to human being. The wild flowers have some medicinal properties and aromatic in nature produce scents, oils and several other shampoos. These vegetables are a great source of minerals and are used as food vegetables.
Samoyaa, Vanasha, Catflowers:
These three flowers are found at the height of 3000-6000 ft. in the temperate Shivalik hills. Samoya is a scented, aromatic herb, Vanasha, an edible herb used in tea and milk, catflowers are used in tea, milk and cure the fever and fatigue.
The herbal tracks are encouraged in the Shivalik hills to encourage tourism, knowledge and awareness about herbal medicines in the country. The herbal tracks are conducted several times a year to encourage herbal tourism in our country. The Himalayan low heights and Shivalik hills are a fertile ground for such herbs.
India is a haven for strange mammals, primates, bears, deers, marsh deers, wildboars, avifauna and orthopoda. The variety of climate and ecological adaptation has made India a nursery of rich bio-diversity. From Himalayan states in the north, the deserts of Rajasthan and Gujarat in the west, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats in the south, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura and Manipur and Arunachal in the north east are a thriving laboratory of unique wildlife species in the world.
Because of its rich bio-diversity, the Government of India should encourage wildlife tourism in every national park of the country. Domestic tourism can be made most popular in our country. This campaign can be initiated from schools and colleges.
It can be popularized at a wider scale so that the people of one state can learn a lot of things about the people, culture and wildlife of other states. Such things are necessary for communal harmony and national-integration.
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Role of Tourism Industry in India's DevelopmentSultan Singh Jaswal*
Department Of Commerce, Govt. College Dhaliara, Kangra, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sultan Singh Jaswal
Department Of Commerce
Govt. College Dhaliar, Kangra, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 01, 2014; Accepted Date: June 28, 2014; Published Date: July 14, 2014
Citation: Jaswal SS (2014) Role of Tourism Industry in India’s Development. J Tourism Hospit 3:126. doi: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000126
Copyright: © 2014 Jaswal SS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Employment opportunities; Foreign versus domestic tourists; GDP; Tourism industry
Throughout the world, tourism brings money to cities and countries. Tourism also provides jobs for the local residents, further benefiting the destination. India has realized the profits available from this sector. Thanks to its growing economy and promoting itself as a culturally rich and diverse nation, India’s tourism industry now brings billions of dollars into the economy each year. The growth in the tourism industry is due to the rise in the arrival of more and more foreign tourists and the increase in the number of domestic tourists.
Words are few to explain the beauty of India. India is a country with diversified culture and traditions. The natural beauty of India, festivals, dresses, heritage sites of India are very popular among tourists. These things fascinate travelers to come here. India has so many scenic blesses places like Kerala, Darjeeling, Goa, Kashmir, Shimla(I am just having few names) and Manali. These places are very popular. These places are prime attraction of travelers from across the world .There are also so many other places worth visiting ., like Delhi Kutub Minar /Agra Tajmahal/Hyderabad Charminar and Salarjung museum /Chennai a city of fine arts / Bangalore., Known as the Garden City for its lush landscape, lakes and temperate climate, it aptly represents India’s marriage of past and present,/ kerala known as god’s own country/ Kolkata was arguably second only to London in administrative importance in the British Empire. Home of luminaries like Rabindranath Tagore, Amartya Sen, Mother Teresa, and Satyajit Ray, the city is often referred to as the “cultural capital of India” etc. The Government of India has established the Ministry of Tourism in order to boost Tourism in India. The Ministry of Tourism has undertaken many projects to showcase India as a perfect Tourist destination and create a visitor-friendly image of the country. The major steps taken by the Government were the Atithi Devo Bhavah Campaign which gave a widespread message of “honour your Guest as he is always equivalent to God” and the Incredible India Campaign which was incredibly successful in creating a colorful and a gorgeous image of our country as a perfect holiday destination. Dr. K. Chiranjeevi, Hon’ble Minister for State for Tourism (IC) launched the Ministry of Tourism’s Incredible India 2013 Calendar. The attractive Calendar is based on the theme “Find What You Seek” as part of Phase II of the Incredible India campaign, which was launched during World .
Travel Mart (WTM), London 2012. This was mainly because of extensive Publicity Campaigns in which the IT industry played a remarkable role.
The present study is based on the secondary data published by various agencies and organizations. The present study makes use of data and information provided by, UNWTO, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Economic journals and Internet etc.
Initiatives by the government for tourism promotion
Hunar se rozgar’ programme: A special initiative was launched in 200910 for the create ion of employable skills among youth belonging to economically weaker sections of the society in the age group of 18- 25 years (upper age limit raised to 28 years in November, 2010) with the basic objective to reduce the skill gap affecting the hospitality and tourism sector and to ensure the spread of economic benefit of tourism to the poor. The programme offers short duration courses of 6 to 8 weeks which are fully funded by the Ministry of Tourism
Visa on arrival: Considering the importance of Visa facilities in enhancing tourist inflow, the facility of „Long Term Tourist Visas‟ of five years duration with multiple entries, carrying a stipulation of 90 days for each visit, has been introduced on a pilot basis f or the nationals of the 18 selected countries. The findings of an evaluation study conducted by this
Ministry has reinforced the belief that the presence of the facility of “Visa on Arrival” (VoA) significantly influences the tourists'' travel plans to any country. During 2012, a total number of 16,084 VoAs (Visa on Arrival) were issued as compared to 12,761 VoAs during the corresponding period of 2011, thereby showing a growth of 26%. Efforts are on to extend the VoA facility for the nationals of more countries
Types of tourism in india
India is a country which witnesses a lot of diversity pertaining to its ecology, mythology, history, its geographical diversity in terms of mountains, planes and plateaus and also the medicinal diversity teaching us the Science of Life (Ayurveda). India showcases a variety of tourism options which includes Ecological Tourism, Pilgrimage Tourism, Historical Tourism, Adventure Tourism, Medical Tourism and an upcoming Ayurveda Tourism. So Tourism in India could be broadly classified on the basis of above mentioned categories 
Leisure tourism: Leisure time can be defined as “free time”, not doing any work. It is that time to do things that you normally have no time for in your daily life. Leisure tourism includes a holiday with the following:
o Relaxation: Sleep, relax, reading, walk on the beach, taking a scenic drive o Sport activities: hiking, swimming, surfing, running
o Visit places of interest and local attractions Visiting friends and relatives
o Shopping for goods that will be used by the tourist.
Business tourism: Business tourism can be defined as “travel for the purpose of business”.
Business Tourism can be divided into three sections:-
(a) Trading for goods to be resold on a wholesale basis.
(b) Conduct business transactions
eg. visiting a client, contract negotiations.
(c) Attending a conference, exhibition or event associated with their business.
Ecological tourism: The rich diversity in the flora and fauna with a blessing of the beautiful natural attractions has encouraged Ecological Tourism in India. The forests cover on the Andaman and Nicobar islands, Orissa, Meghalaya and the Malabar Coast;the Kaziranga and Jim Corbette wildlife sanctuaries;the mountain ranges in North India and the Hill Stations such as Shimla, Kulu, Manali, Ooty;the Paradise on Earth, Kashmir, the beautiful beaches at Goa and the backwaters of Kerala and much more is nothing but a feast for all nature lovers
Pilgrimage tourism: India has a very strong mythological background and is also known as the LAND OF GODS AND GODDESS. India being the most culturally developed country and the birthplace of many saints, poets and philosophers has marked growth in Pilgrimage Tourism since ancient times itself. Kedarnath, Badrinath, Amarnath, the Golden Temple at Amritsar, Dwarka, Dargahs and Masjids at Delhi and Ajmer, churches and temples at Goa are some of the common tourists’ attractions pertaining to Pilgrimage tourism 
Historical tourism: India is a land which gave birth to many legendary rulers and warriors creating a glorious historical background. Every city or place in India has a story to tell about its history. The common tourists’ attractions for the same include the Taj Mahal at Agra, the beautifully carved Ajanta Ellora and Khajuraho caves, the forts at Delhi, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, one of the oldest and historical cities of India “Madurai” and many more .
Medical tourism: Medical Tourism is an upcoming kind of tourism in India. Due to low cost and efficient medication facilities more number of people all over the world considers India to be a better option for medication purpose. The later part of the paper studies Medical Tourism.
Ayurveda and yoga tourism: Ayurveda may be regarded as the “Science of Life” which was developed long ago in 600 BC. India has witnessed an overall growth in tourist arrivals due to the upcoming; Ayurveda Tourism. The state of Kerala in South India is the popular destination of Ayurveda Tourism. The main focus of Indian Yoga is nothing but simple ‘yogasanas’and meditation which rejuvenates one’s mind, body and soul. There are many Ashrams in India encouraging Yoga Tourism. The mountain ranges of the Himalayas, Rishikesh, Kedarnath, Gangotri of northern India are some of the places where one can get eternal peace and satisfy their spiritual quest and are the prefect destinations for Yoga Tourism.
Adventure tourism: Due to its geographical diversity India is one of the finest places for Adventure Tourism. Mountaineering, skiing, trekking in the ranges of Himalayas, Camel safaris in Rajasthan, River rafting in the Ganges near Rishikesh, Rock climbing, Wind rafting and much more of an adventure for every adventure lover is bestowed by India upon its Tourists.
Sports tourism: Sports tourism refers to international travel either for viewing or participating in a sporting event. Examples include international sporting events such as the Olympics, world cup (soccer, rugby, and cricket), tennis, golf and Formula 1 Grand Prix.
Wildlife tourism: Wildlife tourism is the observation of wild (non-domestic) animals in their natural environment or in captivity. It includes activities such as photography, viewing and feeding of animals. This form of tourism offer tourists customized tour packages and safaris and is closely associated with eco-tourism and sustainable-tourism. Other minor forms of tourism include Slum tourism, Luxury tourism, Agritourism, Geo-tourism, culinary tourism and many more. Tourism is also a profitable industry for the following sectors: accommodation venues, tour guides, recreation, attractions, events and conferences, food and beverage, transportation and the travel trade.
Tourist attractions in india
India is a country known for its lavish treatment to all visitors, no matter where they come from. Its visitor-friendly traditions, varied life styles and cultural heritage and colorful fairs and festivals held abiding attractions for the tourists. The other attractions include beautiful beaches, forests and wild life and landscapes for eco-tourism; snow, river and mountain peaks for adventure tourism; technological parks and science museums for science tourism; centers of pilgrimage for spiritual tourism; heritage, trains and hotels for heritage tourism. Yoga, Ayurveda and natural health resorts and hill stations also attract tourists.
The Indian handicrafts particularly, jewelry, carpets, leather goods, ivory and brass work are the main shopping items of foreign tourists. It is estimated through survey that nearly forty per cent of the tourist expenditure on shopping is spent on such items.
Despite the economic slowdown, medical tourism in India is the fastest growing segment of tourism industry, according to the market research report “Booming Medical Tourism in India”.
The report adds that India offers a great potential in the medical tourism industry. Factors such as low cost, scale and range of treatments provided in the country add to its attractiveness as a medical tourism destination .
Domestic tourism flows in india
Domestic tourism continued to grow at a double-digit rate in 2012. The growth was driven by rising numbers of people travelling across the country for pilgrimage, wildlife, sightseeing, photography and adventure sports holidays. Figure 1 shows the total contribution of travel and tourism to employment. Some of the other factors also include wider economic growth of the country, rising disposable incomes, formal employment with leave entitlement etc. Domestic tourism also witnessed growth due to increased marketing efforts through television commercials, tour operators and agents of various states highlighting the best tourism experiences on offer. Domestic tourism is expected to grow at a CAGR of 11% in the forecast period in terms of number of trips. The number of holiday takers overall is expected to increase at a CAGR of 5%, boosting domestic tourism. Additionally, disposable incomes will rise, enabling locals to take more trips annually. Furthermore, the weakness of the Indian rupee against the dollar and other currencies will encourage locals to take trips within the country, where their purchasing power will be stronger. (Over 30% Indian tourists are Gujarat’s: Tourism ministry) Gujarat comes in ninth place when it comes to attracting tourists from other Indian states and it is nowhere among the top 10 with regards to foreign tourist visits. However, the state takes the top slot when it comes to travelling outside, be it within the country or to international locations, followed closely by Maharashtra. Both, Gujarat and Maharashtra are front runners for offering tourists to domestic and international circuits. Of the overall tourists from India visiting domestic as well as international destinations, nearly 30-40 per cent are from Gujarat. Considering this penchant of Guajarati’s for travel, Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi had said during his visit to West Bengal, “Gujarat was never a tourist destination, but Guajarati’s are the best tourists.” Apart from Gujarat and Maharashtra, Delhi and West Bengal send the highest number of tourists to various outside destinations. According to tourism ministry data, the number of outbound tourists from India to international destinations increased by 6.7 per cent to 14.92 million in 2012 over the previous year. The ministry data also states that the total number of domestic tourist visits in 2012 was 1.036 billion, that is to say over 1.036 billion domestic tourists travelled to different parts of the country during 2012, up from 850 million travelers in 2011 .
Travel and tourism’s growth
Tourism is not only a growth engine but also an employment generator. According to the Economic Survey 2011-12, the sector has the capacity to create large scale employment both direct and indirect, for diverse sections in society, from the most specialized to unskilled workforce. It provides 6-7 per cent of the world'' s total jobs directly and millions more indirectly through the multiplier effect as per the UN''s World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
Completely skipping India because of so many incidents of rape and molestation that came to light last year,” he said. The travel companies were hoping that because of the rupee depreciation, inbound tourism would get a major boost in 2013. Figure 2 shows the Plummeting growth of Foreign Tourist Travels. However, as challenges persist, most are now pinning their hopes on 2014. “In the last one year, inbound tourism has not grown to our expectations due to sluggish economic climate in source markets. We believe this will change and Indian tour operators will reap the benefits of this revival. Another factor that will help India is the depreciation of the rupee by 12 per cent, which will boost inbound tourism in the 2014-15 seasons,” said Arup Sen, director (special projects), Cox & Kings. Figure 3 shows the decreasing trend of GDP as compared to2010-11.Foreign exchange earnings from tourism in 2013 grew 2.2 per cent to $18.1 billion, compared to a growth of seven percent in the previous years .
Travel and tourism’s contribution to GDP
Travel and tourism play an important role in India’s economy; compared with other nations, India ranks 14th in the world in terms of its tourism sector’s contribution to the GDP. At time of publication, the World Travel and Tourism Council predict India will sustain the fifth largest amount of growth in the tourism sector of any country. Tourism can offer direct and indirect aid to a nation’s economy. Direct benefits include economic support for hotels, retail shops, transportation services, entertainment venues and attractions, while indirect benefits include government spending on related infrastructure, plus the domestic spending of Indians employed in the tourism sector. The share of Travel & Tourism spending or employment in the equivalent economy-wide concept in the published national income accounts or labour market statistics. Table 1 shows Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP in 2014.
|India - Travel & Tourism Total|
|Contribution to GDP - 6.8(% share)in|
Table 1: India - Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP - 6.8(% share) in 2014.
Of India. Visitor exports are compared with exports of all goods and services Domestic Travel & Tourism spending is compared with GDP Government individual Travel & Tourism spending is compared with total government spending Internal Travel & Tourism consumption is compared with total internal consumption (i.e. total domestic spending plus total export). Table 2 shows Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP in local currency units in 2014 in India. Leisure Travel & Tourism contribution to GDP is compared with total GDP Business Travel & Tourism contribution to GDP is compared with total GDP Travel & Tourism capital investment spending is compared with all fixed investment spending .
Table 2: India - Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP – LCU (local currency units) 8,488.3 bn in 2014.
Impacts of tourism on the economy
Tourism can bring many economic and social benefits, particularly in rural areas and developing countries, but mass tourism is also associated with negative effects. Tourism can only be sustainable if it is carefully managed so that potential negative effects on the host community and the environment are not permitted to outweigh the financial benefits. Tourism industry in India has several positive and negative impacts on the economy and society. These impacts are highlighted below .
1. Generating Income and Employment: Tourism in India has emerged as an instrument of income and employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. It contributes 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment in India. Almost 20 million people are now working in the India’s tourism industry.
2. Source of Foreign Exchange Earnings: Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in India. This has favorable impact on the balance of payment of the country. The tourism industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate.
3. Preservation of National Heritage and Environment: Tourism helps preserve several places which are of historical importance by declaring them as heritage sites. For instance, the Taj Mahal, the Qutab Minar, Ajanta and Ellora temples, etc. would have been decayed and destroyed had it not been for the efforts taken by Tourism Department to preserve them. Likewise, tourism also helps in conserving the natural habitats of many endangered species.
4. Developing Infrastructure: Tourism tends to encourage the development of multiple-use infrastructure that benefits the host community, including various means of transports, health care facilities, and sports centers, in addition to the hotels and high-end restaurants that cater to foreign visitors. The development of infrastructure has in turn induced the development of other directly productive activities.
5. Promoting Peace and Stability: Honey and Gilpin  suggests that the tourism industry can also help promote peace and stability in developing country like India by providing jobs, generating income, diversifying the economy, protecting the environment, and promoting cross-cultural awareness. However, key challenges like adoption of regulatory frameworks, mechanisms to reduce crime and corruption, etc, must be addressed if peace-enhancing benefits from this industry are to be realized.
1. Undesirable Social and Cultural Change: Tourism sometimes led to the destruction of the social fabric of a community. The more tourists coming into a place, the more the perceived risk of that place losing its identity. A good example is Goa. From the late 60’s to the early 80’s when the Hippy culture was at its height , Goa was a haven for such hippies. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state leading to a rise in the use of drugs, prostitution and human trafficking. This had a ripple effect on the country.
2. Increase Tension and Hostility: Tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion between the tourists and the local communities when there is no respect and understanding for each other’s culture and way of life. This may further lead to violence and other crimes committed against the tourists. The recent crime committed against Russian tourist in Goa is a case in point.
3. Creating a Sense of Antipathy: Tourism brought little benefit to the local community. In most all-inclusive package tours more than 80% of travelers’ fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and workers. Moreover, large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence. This has often created a sense of antipathy towards the tourists and the government.
4. Adverse Effects on Environment and Ecology: One of the most important adverse effects of tourism on the environment is increased pressure on the carrying capacity of the ecosystem in each tourist locality. Increased transport and construction activities led to large scale deforestation and destabilization of natural landforms, while increased tourist flow led to increase in solid waste dumping as well as depletion of water and fuel resources. Flow of tourists to ecologically sensitive areas resulted in destruction of rare and endangered species due to trampling, killing, disturbance of breeding habitats. Noise pollution from vehicles and public address systems, water pollution, vehicular emissions, untreated sewage, etc. also have direct effects on bio-diversity, ambient environment and general profile of tourist spots.
Results and Discussion
Environmental degradation, (Pollution) due to tourism should be taken into consideration while promoting tourism. Eco-friendly tourism should be promoted. Wildlife environment should be taken into consideration while promoting tourism. Because Wildlife viewing puts stress on animals and has changed their behavioral patterns. Noise and commotion created by tourists have adverse effect on their behavioral pattern. Litter, impact on tourism should be taken into consideration while promoting tourism. Because the most common impact of tourism is litter, and its effect is almost instant. By employing local people to help clean it up, making their lives slightly easier and more comfortable.
Aggressive advertisement campaigns on the tourist destinations should be made to attract more and more tourist. Airport procedures should be simplified. In nutshell if one wants to enjoy nature one must preserve it, otherwise all the exotic destinations will become extinct and the world will not be a beautiful place to live in. Eco friendly tourism should be promoted all over the world and if marvels of nature should be preserved, tourism should take into account the principle and process of sustainable consumption.
India could be a country with varied culture and traditions. The natural fantastic thing about India, festivals, dresses, heritage sites of India area unit extremely popular among tourists. Kerala, Darjeeling, Goa, Kashmir, Shimla (I am simply having few names) and Manali area unit best scenic places in India. Commercial enterprise business in India has large potential for generating employment and earning great amount of interchange besides giving a positive stimulus to the country’s overall economic and social development. Promotion of touristy ought to be done in order that commercial enterprise in India helps in protective and sustaining the variety of the India’s natural and cultural environments. commercial enterprise in India ought to be developed in such means how some way the way the simplest way} that it accommodates and entertains guests in an exceedingly way that’s minimally intrusive or harmful to the setting and sustains & supports the native cultures within the locations it’s operational in. commercial enterprise could be a multi-dimensional activity, and essentially an industry. All wings of the Central and State governments, non-public sector and voluntary organizations ought to become active partners within the endeavour to realize property growth in commercial enterprise if India is to become a world player within the commercial enterprise business.
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Figure 1: Plummeting growth.
Figure 2: Total contribution of travel and tourism to employment.
Figure 3: Decreasing trend of GDP as compare to 2010-11 onwards.
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